IJEP 41(11): 1237-1244 : Vol. 41 Issue. 11 (November 2021)
Martin Luther Christian University, Department of Environment and Traditional Ecosystems, Shillong – 793 006, Meghalaya, India
In this study, an investigation was carried out to monitor the groundwater quality in Khimusniang area of Jowai town located in the state of Meghalaya, India. Groundwater samples were collected from ten sampling stations during post-monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons of 2019 and 2020, respectively. The groundwater quality was determined by analyzing water parameters, such as pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, free carbon dioxide, iron and fluoride. The analytical results showed that most sampling stations are within the permissible limit. This is affirmed by the results obtained from the physicochemical water parameters studied, their values when compared to the standards given by BIS/ICMR are within the acceptable limit, except on a few occasions. In addition, water quality index assessments indicate water is under the category of good in most sampling stations.
Groundwater quality, Water parameters, Jowai, Meghalaya
- Milanovic, A., D. Milijasevic and J. Brankov. 2011. Assessment of polluting effects and surface water pollution index: A case study of hydro-system Danube-Tisa-Danube, Serbia; Carpathiah. J. Earth Env. Sci., 6(2): 269-277.
- Lamare, E.R. and O. P. Singh. 2016. Application of CCME water quality index in evaluating the water quality status in limestone mining area of Meghalaya, India. Ecoscan., 10 (1 and 2): 149-154.
- Kumar, A.R., S.M.M.N. Khan and R. Sivanesan. 2013. A correlation and regression study on the groundwater of Vaiyampatti village, Tiruchirappalli district. Indian J. Env. Prot., 33(5): 427-431.
- Lamare, E.R., R. Shylla and O.P. Singh. 2014. Assessment of groundwater quality from dug wells in West Jaintia Hills District, Meghalaya, India. Int. J. Env. Sci., 5(3): 544-552.
- World Bank. 2001. India: Power supply to agriculture. World Bank, Washington, DC.
- Sharma, B.K. 1985. Limnological studies in a small reservoir in Meghalaya northeast India. In Tropical limnology (vol. II). Ed K. H. Timotus and G.F. Sathya. Wacana Christian University Press, Salatiga, Indonesia. pp 187-197.
- Behara, D.K. and R.C. Das. 2008. Environmental sciences principles and practice. Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi.
- Rao, K.S. and B.S. Rao. 1994. Correlation among water quality parameters of groundwater of Musunur Mandal, Krishna district. Indian J. Env. Prot., 14(7): 528-532.
- Jain, C. K. and M.K. Sharma. 1997. Relationship among water quality parameters of groundwater of Jammu district. Poll. Res., 16 (4): 241-246.
- Sabal, D.A. and T.I. Khan. 2008. Groundwater fluoride content and water quality in Amber tehsil of Jaipur district. Ecoscan., 2(2): 265-267.
- Shyamala, R., M. Shanthi and P. Lalitha. 2008. Physico-chemical analysis of borewell water samples of Telungupalayam area in Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India. E-J. Chem., 5(4): 924-929.
- Udayalaxmi, G., D. Himabindu and G. Ramadass. 2010. Geochemial evaluation of groundwater quality in selelcted areas of Hyderabad, India. Indian J. Sci. Tech., 3(5): 546-553.
- Chowdhury, T. R., et al. 1999. Arsenic poisoning in the Ganges delta. Nature. 401: 545-546.
- Rao, N. S. and D.J. Devadas. 2003. Fluoride incidence in groundwater in an area of peninsular India. Env. Geo., 45: 243–251.
- Shanker, B.S., N. Balasubramanya and R. Maruthesha. 2007. Impact of industrialization on groundwater quality- a case study of Peenya industrial area, Bangalore. Env. Monit. Assess., 142(13): 263-268.
- Agarwal, M., M. Singh and H. Hussain. 2019. Assessment of groundwater quality with special emphasis on nitrate contamination in parts of Gautam Budh Nagar district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Acta Geo. Chem., 38(5): 703–717.
- Bhagure, G.R. and S.R. Mirgane. 2011. Heavy metal concentrations in groundwaters and soils of Thane region of Maharashtra, India. Env. Monit. Assess., 173(1-4): 643–652.
- Mridul, B. and S.H. Prasad. 2013. A GIS based assessment of lead, arsenic, cadmium and aluminium contamination of groundwater in dhemaji district of Assam, India. Int. J. Res. Chem. Env., 3(4): 1-7.
- Lahkar, M. and K.G. Bhattacharyya. 2019. Heavy metal contamination of groundwater in guwahati city, Assam, India. Int. Res. J. Eng. Tech., 6(6): 1520-1525.
- APHA. 2005. Standard methods of chemical analysis of water and wastewater (21st edn). American Public Health Association, Washington D.C.
- Maiti, S.K. 2001. Water and wastewater analysis. In Handbook of method in environmental studies (vol.1). ABD Publishers, Jaipur, Rajasthan.
- Tiwari, T.N. and M. Mishra. 1985. A preliminary assessment of WQI to major India rivers. Indian J. Env. Prot., 5(4): 276-279.
- Jena, V., S. Dixit and S. Gupta. 2013. Assessment of water quality index of industrial area surface water samples. Int. J. Chem. Tech. Res., 5(1): 278-283.
- Brown, R. M., et al. 1972. A water quality index – Crossing the psychological barrier. Proceedings of the International Conference on Water Pollution Research, Jerusalem. pp 787-797.
- Hitchon, B., E.H. Perkins and W.D. Gunter. 1999. Introduction to groundwater geochemistry. Geoscience Publishing Ltd., Alberta.
- Dhar, I. and D. Walia. 2017. Hydrochemical characterizations of groundwater of West Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya for irrigation purpose. Toxicol. Food Tech., 11(8): 83-89.
- Hem, J.D. 1991. Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural waters (3rd edn). Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur.
- Singh, S., N.R. Janardhana and C. Ramakrishna. 2015. Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for domestic and irrigation use in parts of the Chandauli Varanasi region, Uttar Pradesh, India. J. Water Res. Prot., 7: 572-587.
- Sharma, D.A., M.S. Rishi and T. Keesari. 2017. Evaluation of groundwater quality and suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in southwest Punjab, India using hydrochemical approach. Appl. Water Sci., 7: 3137–3150.
- Todd, D.K. 1980. Groundwater hydrology. Wiley, New York.
- Karanth, K. R. 1997. Groundwater assessment, development and management. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi.
- Mishra, R., M.K. Mishra and R.N. Upadhaya. 2011. Physico-chemical study of damodar river water of Bokaro district, Jharkhand, India. Int. J. Agric. Env. Biotech., 4(1): 5-11.
- Lamare, E.R. and O.P. Singh. 2017. Changes in soil quality in limestone mining area of Meghalaya, India. Nature Env. Poll. Tech., 16 (2): 545-550.
- Swer, S. and O.P. Singh. 2004. Coal mining impacting water quality and aquatic biodiversity in Jaintia Hills district of Meghalaya. Himalayan Eco., 11(2): 29-36.
- Chinoy, J.N. 1991. Effects of fluoride on physiology of animals and human beings. Indian J. Env. Toxicol., 1:17–32.
- Datta, A., et al. 2014. Fluoride contamination of underground water in West Bengal, India. Fluoride. 47(3): 241-248.
- Kundu, M.C. amd B. Mandal. 2009. Assessment of potential hazards of fluoride contamination in drinking groundwater of an intensively cultivated district in West Bengal, India. Env. Monit. Assess., 152(1–4):97–103.
- Rao, N.S., et al. 2017. Fluoride occurrence in the groundwater in a coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Appl. Water Sci., 7:1467–1478.