IJEP 41(8): 953-960 : Vol. 41 Issue. 8 (August 2021)
Vels University, Department of Petroleum Engineering, Pallavaram – 600 117, Tamil Nadu, India
The intent of the present study is to comprehend the geochemical processes of fluorides in groundwater from Tiruppur taluk of Tiruppur district, Tamil Nadu, India. Geologically, the region has base rocks of Archaean group of charnockite, hornblende biotite gneiss, pink granite, anorthosite and amphibolites. Outstanding fluorides (F–) in groundwater were observed in semi-arid of hard rock areas. This study result posits the groundwater is characterized by sodium (Na+): bicarbonate (HCO3–) facies. The fluorides of study environ vary from 0.12-2.34 mg/L with an average of 1.2 mg/L. Since the total samples collected 30% of fluoride indicates fluoride concentration surpasses the maximum allowable limit of 1.5 mg/L. This study suggests spatial variation noticed in fluoride substance emerge due to fluoride bearing minerals, grade of weathering of rocks, contact interval of aquifer material with water and the related geochemical process. A correlation attempted has been made between the fluoride concentrations with water type, the relationship of fluoride with HCO3–, fluoride with Na+ and pH (parts of hydrogen) were studied and proves that HCO3– has a better correlation with fluoride than the other parameters. The weathering of rocks causes the release of Na+ and HCO3– ions, which controls the water chemistry by strong acid by intensive ion exchange. Hence this correlation reveals Na+, Cl– (chloride) and Mg2+ (magnesium) ions play a vital role in controlling water chemistry of this area.
Fluorides, Hard rock, Spatial distribution, Correlation, Tiruppur taluk, Tamil Nadu
- Leung, D.C.W. and S.E. Hrudey. 1985. Removal of fluorides from water supplies. Alberta Environment Standards and Approval Divisions. pp 107.
- UNICEF. 2008. UNICEF handbook on water quality. United Nations Children’s Fund, New York.
- Ando, M., et al. 2001. Health effects of the fluoride pollutions caused by coal burning. Sci. Total Env., 271(1-3):107-116.
- Teotia, S. P. and M. Teotia. 1984. Endemic fluorosis in India: A challenging national health problem. J. Assoc. Physicians India. 32:347-352.
- Dissanayake, C. B. 1991. The fluoride problem in the groundwater of Sri Lanka -environmental management and health. Int. J. Env. Studies. 38(2): 137-155.
- Jacks, G., et al. 2005. Controls on genesis of some high fluorides groundwater in India. Appl. Geochem., 20 : 221–228.
- Keshari, A. K. and S. D. Dhiman. 2001. Genesis of the fluorides contamination in the western Indian aquifers. Theme 3: Point and non-point source pollution. Third Int conf. on Future groundwater resources at risk (FGR’01), Lisbon, Portugal. Procedings, pp 1-8.
- Ranjan, R.K., et al.. 2013. Hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater in the plains of Phalgu river in Gaya, Bihar, India. Arab. J. Geosci., 6 (9): 3257-3267.
- Carrillo-Rivera, J.J., A. Cardona and W. M. Edmunds. 2002. Use of the abstractions regime and the knowledge of hydrogeological conditions to control the higher fluoride concentration in abstracted groundwater: San Luis Potosí basin, Mexico. J. Hydrol., 261(1-4):24-47.
- Pitchamuthu, C.S. 1967. Physical geography of India. National Book Trust India, New Delhi.
- Milich, L. 1997. Deserts of the world.
- Arumugam, K. and K. Elangovan. 2009. Hydro-chemical characteristics and groundwater quality assessment in Tiruppur region, Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India. Env. Geol., 58(2): 1509–1520.
- Rao, N.V.R., K.S. Rao and R. D. Schuiling. 1993. Fluorine distributions in water of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Env. Geol., 21: 84–89.
- Frencken, J.E. 1992. Endemic fluorosis in developing countries: Causes, effects and possible solutions(report of a symposium held in Delft, The Netherlands, April 27th, 1990). TNO Institute for Preventive Health Care, Leiden, The Netherlands.
- CGWB. 2008. A profile of Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu. Unpublished report. Central Groundwater Board. pp 35.
- APHA. 1995. A standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (14th edn). American Public Health Association, Washington D.C.
- Golden Software Inc. 2002. Surfer 8. Golden Software Inc., Golden, Co., USA.
- MapInfo. 2012. MapInfo professional geographic information system software package version 11.5.1 (software). Pitney Bowes Software Inc., Troy, New York.
- WHO. 1973. Trace elements in human nutrition. A report of a WHO expert committee (WHO technical report series no. 532). World Health Organization, Geneva.
- WHO. 1983. Guideline to drinking water quality. World Health Organization, Geneva.
- WHO. 1996. Guidelines for drinking water quality. World Health Organization, Geneva.
- WHO. 2011. Guidelines for drinking-water quality (4th edn). World Health Organization, Geneva.
- Hem, J. D. 1985. Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water (3rd edn). Scientific Publisher, Jodhpur, India.
- IS 10500. 2012. Drinking water specification. Pureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
- Keller, E.A. and F.J. Swanson. 1979. Effects of large organic material on channel form and fluvial processes. Earth Surface Processes. 4:361-380.
- Reddy, D.R., et al. 1985. Fluoride. 18(3):135–140.
- WHO. 1984. Fluorine and fluorides. Environmental Health Criteria Number 36. World Health Organization, Geneva.
- Hem, J. D. 1961. Calculation and use of ion activity (Geochemistry of water). Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1S35-C. United States Govt. Printing Office, Washington.
- Kim, K. and S. T. Yun. 2005. Buffering of sodium concentration by cation exchange in the groundwater system of a sandy aquifer. Geochem. J., 39: 273–284.
- White, D. E., J. D. Hem and G. A. Waring. 1963. Chemical composition of sub-surface water (chapter F). In Data of geochemistry. Ed Michael Fleischer. United States Govt. Printing Office, Washington.
- Saxena, V. K. and S. Ahmed. 2001. Dissolution of fluoride in groundwater: a water-rock interaction study. Env. Geol., 40:1084–1087.
- Gupta, S.C., C.S. Doshi and B.L. Paliwal. 1986. Occurrence and chemistry of high fluoride groundwater in Jalore district of western Rajasthan. Ann Arid Zone. 25:255-264.