An Empirical Evaluation of the Relationship Between Economic Growth, Population and Solid Waste Generation in India

IJEP 42(11): 1339-1345 : Vol. 42 Issue. 11 (November 2022)

Prerana Bhat, Ananya S. and Rajeshwari U.R.*

CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Department of Economics, Bangalore, Kamataka – 560 029, India


Municipal solid waste (MSW) poses a hazard to the environment, human health and well-being and economic growth, if not managed correctly. It is essential to study the determinants of municipal solid waste generation for efficient waste management planning and achieving sustainable growth. The main objective of this paper is to establish a relationship between economic growth, population and MSW generation. Secondly, it aims to verify whether the environmental kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis is valid in the Indian context with MSW generation as the proxy variable for environmental degradation. Panel regression has been run using statewise data of MSW generation, state net domestic product (SNDP) per capita and population for the years 2000-2019. The results show a significant positive relationship between the selected variables. Least square regression was applied to verify the validity of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in India using nationwide data for MSW generation and GDP per capita for the years mentioned above. The results depicted inverted U-shaped curve with MSW as the dependent variable and GDP per capita as the independent variable and confirmed the validity of the EKC hypothesis.


Municipal solid waste generation, Economic growth, Population, Sustainable development,  Panel regression, Environmental kuznets curve


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