Investigation of Major ion Chemistry in Groundwater: A Case Study done in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh

IJEP 42(7): 813-822 : Vol. 42 Issue. 7 (July 2022)

O. Amala1, K. Vara Lakshmi1, Anima Sunil Dadhich1* and M. Ramesh2

1. GITAM (Deemed to be University), Department of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Visakhapatnam – 530 045, Andhra Pradesh, India
2. GITAM (Deemed to be University), Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology, Visakhapatnam – 530 045, Andhra Pradesh, India


To investigate the major ion chemistry in groundwater, a study was conducted in the coastal line of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. For this study, 24 groundwater samples were collected from bore wells in selected places along the coastal line of Visakhapatnam. Physical and chemical parameters, such as pH, EC, TDS, TH, TA, Ca+2,  Mg+2, Na+, K+, Cl, Br, NO3, SO4-2 were determined. Major ion ratios, such as Cl/(HCO3+CO3), Ca/Mg, Na/Cl and Cl/Br were calculated and results indicate the possibility of saltwater contamination. The hydrogeochemical facies were identified by using the piper trilinear diagram. The chloro-alkali indices of groundwater samples of the study area are negative indicating the ion exchange predominance in the study area. Gibbs plot representing the rock water interaction and evaporation control of geochemistry of groundwater has also been constructed. Few sampling sites also seem to have been influenced by other anthropogenic activities and increased human involvement in the quality of groundwater.


Groundwater quality, Hydrochemical facies, Chloro-alkali indices


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