Key variables affecting surface water quality in Kien Giang province, Vietnam

IJEP 42(8): 899-908 : Vol. 42 Issue. 8 (August 2022)

Nguyen Thanh-Giao1* and Tran Vang-Phu2

1. Can Tho University, College of Environment and Natural Resources, Vietnam
2. Can Tho University, School of Law, Vietnam


The study was conducted to assess surface water quality and identify the main parameters influencing the surface water in Kien Giang province; study took the monitoring data at 49 locations in 2019. Water quality variables were pH, temperature, conductivity (EC), salinity, total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), orthophosphate (PO43--P), ammonium (NH4+-N), nitrate (NO3-N), nitrite (NO2-N), total iron (Fe), chloride (Cl) and coliform. Surface water quality was assessed using QCVN 08-MT:2015/BTNMT and water quality index (WQI). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine main water quality parameters influencing water quality. The findings presented that water environment in Kien Giang province was polluted by organic matters (DO was low; TSS, COD and BOD were high), nutrients (PO43--P, NH4+-N, NO3-N, NO2-N), microorganisms (coliform) and Fe. WQI values indicated that water quality in the rainy season was worse than that in the dry season, mainly from poor to moderate. The PCA results showed that EC, salinity, Fe, Cl, BOD, COD, NO3-N, PO43--N and coliform significantly influenced surface water quality. Therefore, these water variables should be included in the annual monitoring programme in Kien Giang province. The main sources of surface water pollution could be agriculture drainage, dead aquaculture, domestic activities, untreated pollutant/wastewater from industry, river bank erosion and hydrological factors. However, in order to properly manage the surface water quality, the sources of pollution need to be soon identified.


Water quality, Kien Giang, Principal component analysis, water quality index, pollution, water pollution


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