Trace Elements in the Groundwater and their Probable Health Effects in a Kali River Segment, Ganga Basin

IJEP 42(9): 1094-1100 : Vol. 42 Issue. 9 (September 2022)

Taqveem Ali Khan* and Mukhtar Hasan Ahmad

Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Geology, Aligarh – 202 001, Uttar Pradesh, India


Trace elements play a major role in human metabolism. The study is done along the Kali river stretch, which is a tributary of the river Ganga. The river Kali has, over the years, become a dumping site for industrial effluent and urban waste. Trace elements (Ni, Mn, Cu, Co, Cd and Zn) in the groundwater were found in the range of 0.002 mg/L (Cu) to 1.427 mg/L (Ni). Nickel and cadmium concentration in the groundwater is found above the permissible limit. The heavy metal pollution index is above the critical limit. Trace element exposure in infants, adults and children is assessed using hazard quotients and children are found to be most vulnerable to high Ni and Cd in the groundwater. Groundwater along the Kali river is contaminated and is a potential health hazard.


Trace elements, Human metabolism, drinking water, Health effects, Ganga basin


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