IJEP 42(9): 1094-1100 : Vol. 42 Issue. 9 (September 2022)
Taqveem Ali Khan* and Mukhtar Hasan Ahmad
Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Geology, Aligarh – 202 001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Trace elements play a major role in human metabolism. The study is done along the Kali river stretch, which is a tributary of the river Ganga. The river Kali has, over the years, become a dumping site for industrial effluent and urban waste. Trace elements (Ni, Mn, Cu, Co, Cd and Zn) in the groundwater were found in the range of 0.002 mg/L (Cu) to 1.427 mg/L (Ni). Nickel and cadmium concentration in the groundwater is found above the permissible limit. The heavy metal pollution index is above the critical limit. Trace element exposure in infants, adults and children is assessed using hazard quotients and children are found to be most vulnerable to high Ni and Cd in the groundwater. Groundwater along the Kali river is contaminated and is a potential health hazard.
Trace elements, Human metabolism, drinking water, Health effects, Ganga basin
- Ghosh, G.C., et al. 2020. Human health risk assessement of elevated and variable iron and manganese intake with arsenic safe groundwater in Jashore, Bangladesh. Sci. Rep., 10:5206.
- Verma, R. 2019. Depleting groundwater costs farmers heavily. Down to Earth.
- Rahaman, M.M. 2009. Principles of transboundry water resources management and Ganges treaties : An analysis. Water Resour. Develop., 25:159-173.
- Das, P. and K.R. Tamminga. 2012. The Ganges and the GAP : An assessment of efforts to clean a sacred river. Sustain., 4:1647-1668.
- Paul, D. 2017. Research on heavy metal pollution of river Ganga : A review. Annals Agrarian Sci., 15 (2):278-286.
- Sinha, D.K., R. Ram and N. kumar. Quantative assessment of Kali river water pollution. Int. J. Chem. Sci., 10(4):2261-2266.
- Sirohi, S., S.P.S. Sirohi and P.K. Tyagi. 2014. Impact of industrial effluent on water quality of Kali river in different locations of Meerut, India. J. Eng. Tech. Res., 6(4):43-47.
- Mishra, S., et al. 2015. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in Kali river, Uttar Pradesh, India. J. Appl. Natural Sci., 7(2):1016-1020.
- Khan, H.H. and A. Khan. 2019. Groundwater-surface water interaction along river Kali, near Aligarh, India. HydroRes., 2:119-128.
- Rattan, R.K., et al. 2005. Long-term impact of irrigation with sewage effluents on heavy metal content in soils, crops and groundwater – A case study. Agric, Ecosys. Env., 109:310-322.
- Khan, S., et al. 2008. Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Env. Poll., 152:686-692.
- WHO. 2005. Nickel in drinking water (WHO/SDE/WSH/05.08/55). World Health Organization, Geneva.
- IARC. 1990. Nickel and nickel compounds. In Chromium, nickel and welding. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans (vol 49). International Agency for Research on Cancer. pp 257-445.
- Menzel, D.B. 1987. Pharmacokinetic modelling of the lung burolen from repeated inhalation of nickel aerosols. Toxicol. Letters. 38:33-43.
- RIVM. 1994. Attention to substances in Dutch environmental policy (report no. 601014). National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection.
- Meranger, J.C., K.S. Subramanian and C. Chalifoux. 1981. Survey for cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, calcium and magnesium in Canadian drinking water supplies. J. Assoc. Official Anal. Chemists. 64:44-53.
- ATSDR. 1996. Toxicological profile for copper (draft for public comment). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
- Kumari, S., et al. 2014. Assessment and spatial distribution of groundwater quality in industrial areas of Ghaziabad, India. Env. Monit. Assess., 186:501-514.
- BIS. 2012. Drinking water specification. Bureau of Indian standard, New Delhi.
- WHO. 2008. Guidelines for drinking water quality (incorporating 2nd addendum, 3rd edn). World Health Organization, Geneva.
- Homoncik, S.C., et al. 2010. Maganese concentrations in Scottish groundwater. Sci. Total Env., 408(12):2467-2473.
- Khan, T.A. 2011. Trace elements in the drinking water and their possible health effects in Aligarh city. Indian J. Water Resour. Prot., 3:522-530.
- Gaur, S., et al. 2012. Biological effect of heavy metal in drinking water samples of western Uttar Pradesh region in India. J. Appl. Pharma. Sci., 2(7):177-181.
- Khwaja, M.A. and V. Aggarwal. 2014. Analysis of groundwater using statistical techniques: A case study of Aligarh city (India). Int. J. Technical Res. Applications. 2(5):100-106.
- DeSimone, L.A., P.B. McMahon and M.R. Rosen. 2014. The quality of our nation’s water- Water quality in principal aquifers of the United States 1991-2010 (circular 1360). U.S. Geological Survey.
- Abbasi, S.A., P.C. Nipaney and R. Soni. 1989. Environmental status of cobalt and its micro-determination with 7-nitroso-8-hydroxyquinaline-5-sulphonic acid in waters, aquatic weeds and animal tissues. Anal. Letters. 22(1):225-235.
- Smith, I.C. and B.L. Carson. 1979. Trace metals in the environment. Vol. 1 : Thallium. Ann Arbor Science Publishers Inc., Ann Arbor.
- ATSDR. 2020. Agency of Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Available at : www.atsdr.cdc. gov/.
- Hamilton, E.I. 1994. The geobiochemistry of cobalt. Sci. Total Env., 150:7-39.
- Kippler, A.M., et al. 2010. Burden of cadmium in early childhood : Longitudinal assessment of urinary cadmium in rural Bangladesh. Toxicol. Letters. 198(1):20-25.
- Selinus, O., et al. 2005. Essentials of medical geology impacts of the natural environment on public health. Elsevier Academic Press.
- Kumar, A., D. Rathi and R. Dixit. 2014. Physico-chemical analysis of heavy metals in soil and groundwater of industrial area Partapur, Meerut. Int. J. Bioassays. 3(8):3256-3259.
- Tabassum, B., P. Bajaj and I. Azeem. 2016. Electric and electronic waste dump sites causing cadmium contamination in drinking water. Vegetos. 29: 196-198.
- Singh, V.K., et al. 2012. Groundwater quality assessment in the village of Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, district Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Env. Monitor. Assess., 184:4473-4488.
- Prasad, B. and S. Kumari. 2008. Heavy metal pollution index of groundwater of an abandoned opencast mine filled with flyash. Mine Water Env., 27(1):40-45.
- Bhowmik, D., K. P. Chiranjib and K.P.S. Kumar. 2010. A potential medicinal importance of zinc in human health and chronic disease. Int. J. Pharm. Biomed. Sci., 1 (1):5-11.
- Hameed, A. and S.B. Vohra. 1990. Role of elements in pathogenesis and therapy of some selected diseases. In New horizon of health aspect of element. Hamdard University, New Delhi.
- Akhtar, S. 2013. Zinc status in South Asian population – An update. J. Health Population Nutrition. 31(2):139-149.
- Khan, M.A., R. Umar and H. Lateh. 2010. Study of trace elements in groundwater of western Uttar Pradesh, India. Sci. Res. Essays. 5(20):3175-3182.
- WHO. 2005. WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality: Policies and procedures used in updating the WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. World Health Organization, Geneva.
- ATSDR. 2002. Toxicological profile for copper (draft for public comment). Agency for Toxic Substrances and Disease Registry, Public Healt Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, G.A.
- Avtsyn, A.P., et al. 1991. Human microeleme-ntoses. Meditsina, Moscow.
- Kashin, V.K. and G.M. Ivanov. 2008. Copper in natural waters in Transbaikalia. Water Resour., 35(2):228-233.
- Eikhenberger, E. 1993. Relationships between the demand for and toxicity of metals in aquatic ecosystems. In Some issues of the toxicity of metal ions. Internation Programme on Chemical safety. Mir, Moscow. pp 62-87.
- IPCS. 1998. Copper. Environmental health criteria 200. International Programme on Chemical Safety. World Health Organization, Geneva.
- IOM. 2001. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium and zinc. Institute of Medicine (US) panel on micronutrients. National Academies Press, Washington DC.
- Shand, P., et al. 2007. The natural (baseline) quality of groundwater in England and Wales. British Geological Survey and Environment Agency.
- Hasan, M.K., A. Shahriar and K.U. Jim. 2019. Water pollution in Bangladesh and its impact on public health. Heliyon. 5 (8).
- Singh, U.V., et al. 2014. Groundwater quality appraisal and its hydrochemical characterization in Ghaziabad (a region of the Indo-Gangetic plain), Uttar Pradesh, India. Appl. Water Sci., 4:145-157.
- Prasad, B. and K.K. Mondel. 2008. The impact of filling an abandoned opencast mine with flyash on groundwater quality : A case study. Mine Water. Env., 27(1):40-45.
- Tiwari, A.K., et al. 2015. Evaluation of surface water quality by using GIS and a heavy metal pollution index (HPI) model in a coal mining area, India. Bull. Env. Contam. Toxicol., 95:304-310.
- Nazir, E. and M. Razmara. 2014. Evaluation of the heavy metal contaminations in water resources in ophiolitic complex of Pangi area (Kadkan, NW Torbot Hydarieh, Iran). J. Middle East Appl. Sci. Tech., 6(2):152-156.
- Abbasi, T. and S.A. Abbasi. 2012. Water quality indices. Elsevier. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-54304 -2.00001-4.
- Vetrimurugan, E., et al. 2017. Human exposure risk to heavy metals through groundwater used for drinking in an intensively irrigated river delta. Appl. Water Sci., 7:3267-3280.
- Bhardwaj, R., A. Gupta and J.K. Garg. 2017. Evaluation of heavy metal contamination using environ metrics and indexing approach for river Yamuna, Delhi stretch, India. Water Sci., 31:52-66.
- Kumar, V., et al. 2020. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in three different Indian water bodies by combination of multivariate analysis and water pollution indices. Human Ecol. Risk Assess., 26(1): 146-161.
- Fakhri, Y., et al. 2015. Assessment of risk human health induce to chrome, nickel, lead and cadmium of the tap water, Jask city, Iran. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci., 4(3):1009-1017.
- USEPA. 2005. Guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment (EPA/630/P-03/001F). Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
- USEPA. 1992. Guidelines for exposure assessment (EPA/600/Z-92/001). Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
- Chrostowski, P.C. 1994. Exposure assessment principles. In Toxic air pollution handbook. Ed D.R. Patrick. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
- Kavcar, P., A. Sofuoglu and S.C. Sofuoglu. 2009. A health risk assessment for exposure to trace metals via drinking water ingestion pathway. Int. J. Hyg. Env. Health. 212:216-227.
- IRIS. 2005. Integrated risk assessment system. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati. Available at : http://www.epa.gov/iriss.
- USEPA. 2013. Reference dose (RfD) : Description and use in health risk assessment. Background document 1A. Integrated risk information system (IRIS). United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC.
- ICMR. 2009. Nutrient requirments and reacomm-ended dietary allowances for Indians. A report of the expert group of the Indian Council of Medical Research, Hyderabad. National Institute of Nutrition, India.
- Brindha, K., et al. 2016. Fluoride in weathered rock aquifers of southern India : Managed aquifer recharge for mitigation. Env. Sci. Poll. Res., 23:8302-8316.
- Planning Commission. 2011. Report of the working group on rural domestic water and sanitation. 12th Five year plan 2012-2017. Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Government of India.