GIS-based Evaluation of Groundwater Quality as Drinking Water in Kirkuk, Iraq

IJEP 43(7): 622-628 : Vol. 43 Issue. 7 (July 2023)

Huda Jamal Jumaah1*, Akram Khalaf Mohammed2, Mohammed Hashim Ameen2 and Sarah Jamal Jumaah3

1. Northern Technical University, Environment and Pollution Engineering Department, Technical Engineering College Kirkuk, Kirkuk 36001, Iraq
2. Tikrit University, Environmental Engineering Department, Engineering College, Tikrit, Iraq
3. Iraqi Ministry of Health, Center of Disabled Rehabilitation, Kirkuk 36001, Iraq


The water quality index (WQI) is an important and common method for analyzing the general characteristics of water quality. This study aimed to evaluate groundwater in Kirkuk city as drinking water. To implement this study, 15 wells were used in the city of Kirkuk, in Northern Iraq. Four physico-chemical variables were selected to determine the WQI, acidity (pH), turbidity (T), total dissolved solids (TDS) and conductivity (EC). A weighted arithmetic index (WAI) model was used to assess groundwater quality as drinking water. Geographical information systems (GIS)-based analysis was implemented for results layout. Experimental test results of laboratory measurements showed that the water quality is not within clear water specifications, except the pH was within standards. The estimated WQI of the used WAI model ranged between 31.5-387. Some wells were of good drinking water quality and some fall in bad quality for drinking purposes. Besides, inappropriate drinking water quality was determined in the study can cause serious health impacts.


Groundwater, Kirkuk city, Water quality index, Weighted arithmetic index, Geographical information system


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