Spatial Analysis of Household Waste’s Impact on Soil and Air Pollution

IJEP 44(2): 185-192 : Vol. 44 Issue. 2 (February 2024)

Safaa M. Almudhafar1, Maryam A. Rahim2 and Basim Almayahi3*

1. University of Kufa, Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, Najaf, Iraq
2. Aliraqia University, Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, Baghdad, Iraq
3. University of Kufa, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Najaf, Iraq


Najaf has a rich history as one of the most sacred cities in Iraq. However, in recent years, its growing population has led to an increase in household waste and a lack of proper municipal services. Consequently, waste accumulation has become a significant issue, particularly in the northern and southern districts. To assess the impact of waste on Najaf’s environment, this study collected soil samples from two sites, waste-affected area and the unaffected area; the results of both areas were compared to international standards. Additionally, we measured levels of hazardous gases and pathogenic bacteria in the air. The city’s inadequate municipal services have led to waste accumulation in most residential areas, exposing the population to health hazards. In particular, dangerous levels of methane gas were detected, exceeding international standards. In light of these results, urgent action is needed to address Najaf’s waste management issues, protect the well-being of its residents and preserve the city’s sacred status.


Spatial analysis, Soil, air, Household waste, Pollution, Environment


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