Characterization of Surface Water Quality in Gebeng Industrial Area using Multivariate Statistical Analysis

IJEP 44(3): 216-233 : Vol. 44 Issue. 3 (March 2024)

Mir Sujaul Islam1*, Toriman M. Ekhwan2 and Choo Ta Goh1

1. National University of Malaysia (UKM), Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI), Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
2. National University of Malaysia, Geography Programme, Social, Environmental, Development, Sustainability Research Centre (SEEDS), Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia


Rapid industrial development in Gebeng area has caused serious environmental problems including water pollution. The aim of the study was to evaluate the surface water quality of Gebeng industrial estate in Pahang, Malaysia. To collect water samples, ten sampling stations were established along the Tunggak and Balok river. The data were analyzed to identify pollution sources. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to identify the possible impact factors on river water quality. Water quality was classified based on WQI (water quality index) and categorized as class III and IV, which are slightly polluted and polluted due to low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH, high levels of ammonal nitrogen (AN), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS). Results showed that direct discharge of wastewater from industries was responsible for high concentration of pollution at stations IZ2, IZ3, HA1, HA2 and DS. The first component explained about 30.97% of total variance and observed the highest loading of phosphate, turbidity, BOD and COD. The researh finding is useful for future studies to control the pollution level in the study area. 


Water quality, Principal component analysis, Water quality index, Tunggak river, Pollution


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