December-2020

IJEP 40 (12) : 1247-1254 (2020)

Study Of Ambient Air Quality On Transport Network Near Mining Region- A Case Of Talcher Coalfield

Krishna Prakash, Vikas Nimesh, Md. Saddam Hussain and Arkopal Kishore Goswami

Abstract

Dust generation due to movement of heavy trucks on transport and haul roads is one of the major sources of air pollution in open cast coal mining areas. Dust particles generated by mining operations degrade air quality which causes serious health problems. Talcher is heavily polluted due to heavy truck movement, industrial activity and extensive mining operations. Significant proportions of air pollutants are released from industries and vehicles, among which respirable particulate matter (PM10) is a major concern. This research aims to understand the impact of movement of trucks on the overall air quality in the vicinity of a coal mine. The correlation between air pollutants and meteorological factors in these areas has also been analyzed. Study area was selected on the basis of type of mining, accessibility, method of working, meteorological condition and resource availability. The concentration of particulate matter (PM10) was monitored in specified location for 5 days (minimum of 4 hr daily) by using EVM 7. Micro-meteorological parameters, like air temperature and humidity, were collected by using WatchDog 2900ET weather station and EVM 7. The results were then compared with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). It was observed that during the study period, the concentration levels of PM10 generally exceeded the permissible standard. The concentration of PM10 ranged from 20-782 g/m3 with an average of 211 g/m3. The influence of relative humidity and temperature on the concentration of PM10, CO and CO2 were analyzed. The result of the analysis showed that PM10 had very weak and negative correlation with temperature during the monitoring period. CO had strong positive relationship with temperature and significant negative correlation with relative humidity during study period. The results also showed that the correlation between PM10 and relative humidity was very weak (negative) during monitoring period (post-monsoon season).

Keywords

Air quality, PM10, Temperature, Humidity, Transport road, Opencast coal mining

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IJEP 40 (12) : 1255-1263 (2020)

Studies On The Geomorphology And Land Use / Land Cover (LU/LC) Analysis On Annamalai Hill, Tiruvannamalai District, Tamil Nadu

M. Pandian, S. Natarajan and V. Madha Suresh

Abstract

Geomorphology and landuse/land cover (LU/LC) changes of Annamalai hill and surrounding urban areas, Tiruvannamalai district, Tamil Nadu, were determined from 2006-2018 using remote sensing technology and geographic information system (GIS). On the basis of field study, geomorphology and remote sensing data, the study area was classified into six categories. Analysis of toposheet and satellite imaging of LU/LC in 2006 and 2018 revealed that there is a significant increase in built-up area and barren wastelands during the study period due to rapid urbanization and mass tourism. The extent of vegetation cover, arable land, water bodies and hills area have substantially declined due to various anthropogenic factors, such as grazing, man-made forest fire, encroachment of forest land, increasing population, generation of garbage and mass tourism.

Keywords

Anthropogenic factors, Biodiversity, Forest fires, Tiruvannamalai hill, Vegetation cover

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IJEP 40 (12) : 1264-1272 (2020)

Noise Levels In The Modern Urban Roundabout

Jelena Bozic, Predrag Ilic and Svetlana Ilic

Abstract

Theoretical analysis and bibliographical review of the studies relating to the noise effects of traffic management devices conclude that correctly designed roundabouts can reduce noise locally from to influence on traffic noise pollution. The results of the traffic noise mapping of a roundabout are discussed based on the measured data. Comparison of the obtained results with the degree and duration of the exposure of population to excessive noise limit values defined by the national legislation indicates that values of the traffic noise levels at the analysed roundabout in Banja Luka are unexpectedly high. Recommendations for reducing noise levels are given in the conclusions of this paper.

Keywords

Roundabout, Road, Traffic noise, Mapping, Measurements

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IJEP 40 (12) : 1273-1279 (2020)

Anticorrosive Performance Of Phyllanthus aamarus And Senna auriculata Extract-Based Hybrid Coating On Steel

Alagesan Annadurai, Elakkiah Chinnadurai, Venugopal Gopikrishnan, Jerrine Joseph and Manikkam Radhakrishnan

Abstract

Corrosion is one of the major concerns to the construction industry and low toxic corrosion inhibitors are the need of the hour. In this context, green inhibitors are obtained from plants, which are environmentally acceptable. This study focuses on the corrosion inhibition characteristics of 3 different plant extracts from Phyllanthus amarus, Senna auriculata and the hybrid of both the plants on Fe 500 grade steel immersed in acidic solutions (NaCl) using weight loss method. Phytochemical, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) assay were carried out to evaluate the chemical and anti-oxidant properties of plant extracts. Accelerated corrosion technique showed a higher inhibition efficiency of 9.23 with hybrid extract when compared to other samples. Phytochemical constituents showed that the extracts contain alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. The DPPH assay, FT-IR and GC-MS analysis showed the presence of chemical compounds and strong antioxidant activity. The study concludes that the plant inhibitors are sustainable and promising alternatives to the chemical inhibitors.

Keywords

Corrosion inhibitors, Plant extracts, Accelerated corrosion test, Eco-friendly, Anti-corrosion activity

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IJEP 40 (12) : 1280-1287 (2020)

Energy And Environmental Impact Analysis Of An ANN Based Power Optimizer For Residential Solar Photovoltaic System

S.R. Revathy and V. Kirubakaran

Abstract

The increase in power production through fossil fuel contributes to the rapid rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere which is the major cause of global warming. Realising the abundant availability of solar resource, many countries are moving towards photovoltaic based power production which depends on the solar irradiance and temperature. Any change in irradiance and temperature affects the power output of the system, hence optimization is required to improve the efficiency of the solar photovoltaic system. This paper proposes artificial neural networks based power optimization technique to improve the overall efficiency of the system. The efficiency, tracking speed, complexity, scalability, reliability under partial shading conditions and cost of the proposed system is compared with a popular hill climbing maximum power point tracking algorithm. The proposed study has been carried out by simulating the models in MATLAB/Simulink. The proposed method increases the power output by 21% compared to incremental conductance algorithm. Based on carbon footprint analysis, the environmental impact analysis of the proposed method has been estimated and reported in this paper.

Keywords

Solar energy, Photovoltaic, Power optimizer, Artificial neural networks, Maximum power point tracking

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IJEP 40 (12) : 1288-1297 (2020)

Groundwater Suitability Assessment Using Water Quality Index And Trace Elements Distribution In Chittar Sub-basin Of Tambaraparani River, Tamil Nadu

T. Raja Kumar Jeyavel, S. Raja Vasanth Raja, P. Saravanan, B. Thirunelakandan and M. Senthilkumar

Abstract

Groundwater quality of Chittar sub-basin of Tambraparani basin has been studied using water quality index in GIS from major cations, anions data and selected trace elements. The study area lies between latitude 8050′ to 9010′ N and longitude 77010′ to 77030′ E and Hornblende Biotite gneiss, Charnockite are main rock types. The average annual rainfall is 722 mm and the depth to water table during post-monsoon varied between 1-10 m below ground level. Groundwater samples were collected from 25 open wells in the month of June 2014 and major elements of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, PO42- and trace elements of Zn, Pb, Cr, Fe, Cd, Cu and Mn were analysed. The study exposed that ionic concentration of cations and anions were within the permissible limit of WHO standard for drinking in most of the sample locations, nevertheless, EC, TDS, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were found above the limit in few locations. Ca+Mg; SO4+Cl hydrogeochemical facies was identified and Gibb’s diagram favours the rock water interaction. Spatial maps were prepared in ArcGIS by inverse distance weighted interpolation technique. WQI was calculated by assigning weightage to physical and chemical parameters and it indicates good and moderate water quality category. Except Fe, other elements of Pb, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni and Cd were found within permissible limit of drinking water standard.

Keywords

Groundwater quality, Groundwater suitability, Water quality index, Hydrogeochemistry, Trace elements, Chittar sub-basin

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IJEP 40 (12) : 1298-1303 (2020)

Partial Pressure Of Carbon Dioxide Fluxes At Air – Sea Interface During Different Seasons In The Bay Of Bengal From New Digha To Padapur Beach, India

Anil Kumar Giri and Abhijit Das

Abstract

In the present investigation, the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and carbon fluxes (FCO2) evaluate the variability and controlling factors of water quality, nutrients availability, and carbon dioxide exchange air and sea interface. The calculated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and fluxes of CO2 showed decrease that overall sea behave as a sink of CO2 (-71.84±23.08 mmol/m2/d). During winter season, it was sinking of CO2, which could be attributed to higher community respiration over production as evidence by higher utilization of oxygen comparison with other seasons. However, the pCO2 was ranged between 0.70-29.05 µatm (8.08±8.15 µatm) and fluxes CO2 ranged from -94.51 to -39.26 (-71.84±23.08 mmol.C/m2/d) which was lower than the global average reported for saline ecosystem. The results showed the sea was in a better condition as compared to the other records on water quality. These results would be treated as a baseline for future extensive ecosystem health related studies and management of the sea.

Keywords

Water quality, Carbon dioxide, Interface, Nutrients, Saline ecosystem

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IJEP 40 (12) : 1304-1310 (2020)

Managing Nexus Of Development And Environmental Implications Through Sustainable Development Goals In India

Ashwani Pant and Santosh Kumar

Abstract

India and the whole world are facing challenges in mitigating environmental implications in the era of development. Being a developing country, all the three organs of government are committed to sustainable development or inclusive growth. Progressive development has led to harnessing of natural resources which in turn has led to environmental implications. Poor sectoral coordination and institutional fragmentation have triggered an unsustainable use of resources and threatened the long-term sustainability not locally but globally also, posing challenges in achieving sustainable developmental goals. The sustainable development goals (SDGs) are broad sets of common goals for fair and sustainable health from local to international community. The aim is to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity, now and in the future. The nexus approach through proper implementation of sustainable developmental goals can enhance understanding of various sectors and strengthen coordination among them. The paper basically will focus on: the concept of inclusive development in sustainable developmental goals and extent of inclusion; need to develop systems understanding of what supports an inclusive and sustainable development and the issues and challenges thereof.

Keywords

Environmental implications, Sustainable development, Inclusive growth, Implementation, Sustainable development goals

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IJEP 40 (12) : 1311-1316 (2020)

Biosorption Performance Of Packed Bed Column For Removal Of Chromium From Electroplating Wastewater Using Green Algae Chlorella

S. Kanchana and P. Sivaprakash

Abstract

The removal efficiency of green algae Chlorella to biosorb chromium from industrial wastewater was investigated. All experiments were conducted using fixed bed columns. Experiments were carried out as a function of flow rate (2, 4 and 6 mL/min) and bed depth (2.5, 5, 8, 10 cm) at an initial Cr (VI) concentration of 100 mg/L. The particle size of the biosorbent ranged from 150-300 µm. The breakthrough curves were obtained at different flow rates and different bed depths. The results show that the column performed well at lowest flow rate and highest bed depth. Also, column bed capacity and exhaustion time increased with increasing bed depth. The Thomas model and Yoon-Nelson model were used to analyze the experimental data and the model parameters were evaluated. Good agreement of the experimental breakthrough curves with the model predictions was observed.

Keywords

Biosorption, Chromium (VI), Chlorella, Packed bed column

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IJEP 40 (12) : 1317-1322 (2020)

Larvicidal Efficacy Of Purified Fractions Of Blumea eriantha (DC) Whole Plant Extracts On Larvae Of Mosquitoes

Mragendra Singh alias Mithaee Lal Gound, Deepak Meshram and Kapil K. Soni

Abstract

The present study was based on larvicidal efficacy of Blumea eriantha (DC) whole plant extracts that destroy larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Mosquitoes have developed resistance against chemical pesticides. Therefore, in the present study, a new approach of control of mosquitoes was developed by applying larvicides which are biodegradable, less toxic and also facilitate the eco-friendly way of pest management. Plant Blumea eriantha (DC), after identification and authentication from Botanical Survey of India, Allahabad was collected, shade dried and pulverized to get powder of 50-60 mesh size, which was then extracted in distilled water with 2.63% yield through soxhletion. Obtained extracts were fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) with retention factor (RF) values, namely 0.26, 0.46, 0.64 in benzene: methanol (12:0.5) and same solvents were tried in column chromatography and purified fractions were obtained. Then distilled water extract is purified fraction of Blumea eriantha (DC) was applied on larvae of mosquitoes by solvent using water in increasing concentrations (10- 100%) and placed in each beaker separately for each concentration. It was observed that purified fraction of Blumea eriantha (DC) distilled water extract at 100% inhibitory concentration was found to be much more effective, that is 53.33±5.77% mortality as compared to the standard drug Temephos (90.00±11.55% mortality). LC50 and LC90 value were found to be 36.97% and 93.25%, respectively against larvae of mosquitoes. Thus distilled water extract of the plant, Blumea eriantha (DC) was found to be effective for the management of solvent at moderate concentration.

Keywords

Larvicides, Blumea eriantha (DC), Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi

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IJEP 40 (12) : 1323-1331 (2020)

A Pilot-Scale Comparison Of Four Filter Media For Use In The Constructed Wetland For Treating Greywater

Anudeep Nema, K.D. Yadav and R.A. Christian

Abstract

The reuse of low strength wastewater, such as domestic greywater, is a critical tool in abating the effects of water scarcity and population growth. The principal aim of this study was to examine the efficiency of the granular filtration system in greywater treatment for various filter materials. In this context, the study focused on the pollutant removal efficiency of the vertical filters with different materials as granite (M-1), marble (M-2), gravel (M- 3), limestone (M-4) observed. Granite, marble, gravel and limestone reduced the influent total solids (TS) by 21%, 22%, 23% and 23%; total suspended solids (TSS) by 46%, 50%, 49% and 52%; chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 39%, 31%, 41% and 34%; turbidity by 69%, 60%, 71% and 62%, respectively. However, other parameters, such as total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) and calcium increased from initial but not significantly. Overall, gravel and granite filters was observed to be the most effective in improving quality of greywater in terms of organic matter, solids and turbidity reduction and used as constructed wetland media. The reliability of these filters under high and fluctuating loads and the long-term stability of the filter materials need further study.

Keywords

Media filters, Greywater, Primary treatment

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IJEP 40 (12) : 1332-1337 (2020)

Assessment Of Groundwater Quality Of Palladam Region In Tirupur District, Tamil Nadu

S. Manimegalai and K. Kaleel Rahman

Abstract

Water is very important for life, without water our life cannot move. The major sources of water are rainfall, surface water involving rivers, lakes and groundwater involving wells and bore wells. Therefore, even countries with vast water resources could suffer from a scarcity of water in the near future. The changes in quality of groundwater respond to the variation in physical, chemical and biological environments through which it passes. Hence the present investigations were carried to analyse the quality of groundwater samples in Palladam region at Tirupur district of Tamil Nadu, India. The physico-chemical parameters of water samples, such as temperature (T), pH, specific conductance, total alkalinity (TA), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), dissolved phosphates, dissolved oxygen (DO), chloride (Cl-), fluoride (F-), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) have been carried out in Tirupur district. The results revealed that the values of all the samples (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5) are below the permissible limits for turbidity, specific conductance, hardness, TDS, DO, phosphates, fluorides, iron, COD and BOD. Whereas pH, temperature, chlorides and calcium showed the values are above the permissible limits by WHO and BIS standards. Thus it concluded that rainwater harvesting is one of the solutions to minimize the inorganic chemical concentration in groundwater. It is suggested that monit- oring the groundwater quality periodically to prevent further contamination is important.

Keywords

Palladam region, Tirupur district, Groundwater, Physico-chemical parameters, WHO, BIS

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IJEP 40 (12) : 1338-1342 (2020)

A Study On Air Quality Index In Mylavaram, Andhra Pradesh

V. Ramakrishna, B. Dharani Mounika, M. Haritha, T. Saiteja and A. Sambasiva Rao

Abstract

The ambient air is getting polluted due to increased vehicular movement and day-to-day needs. This causes adverse impacts on human health ranging from respiratory problems, bronchitis, asthma and cardiovascular problems. Air quality index (AQI) is developed to convert the ambient concentration of air pollutants to a single index that will help in the assessment of air quality. The AQI of New Delhi is categorized as severe with AQI values >500 during October 2019, which is very alarming. This necessitates the increasing concern for determination of air quality index at any location. Mylavaram is a small town with a population of 21,763 in Krishna district of AP but located along NH 30 which results in heavy traffic flow. The AQI at three different locations in Mylavaram is studied during March-April 2019 and 24 hr samples are collected for PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NO2. Results reveal that the AQI in Mylavaram is satisfactory with PM2.5 and PM10 as the critical pollutants. The AQI in Vijayawada, the nearest major city, is also analyzed from secondary data for the same period and observed that it can also be categorized as satisfactory with PM10 as critical pollutant indicating similar trends for both rural area (Mylavaram) and urban area (Vijayawada). It can be concluded that vehicular emissions and airborne dust are the major problems with respect to air quality in this region.

Keywords

Air quality index, Mylavaram, Vijayawada, Ambient air quality, PM10, PM2.5

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IJEP 40 (12) : 1343-1347 (2020)

Application Of Pressmud Compost From Sugarcane Trash For Improvement Of Soil Texture And Crop Production

Shailesh S. Deshmukh

Abstract

Composting is a biological process which includes degradation of organic material in aerobic condition. Degraded organic matter undergoes chemical and physical changes to form a useful end product with homogeneity. This product has greater importance as organic fertilizer to enhance soil health. The present study was carried out at the soil testing laboratory in Dnyaneshwar Cooperative Sugar Factory Limited, Bhenda. Today environmental pollution is serious problem. Generally, farmers burn the sugar trash which creates air pollution by increasing percentage of greenhouse gases in atmosphere. This leads to drastic changes in environment causing an environmental imbalance. Air pollution also causes respiratory diseases which become a more common thing nowadays. But if farmers used this eco-friendly method of composting, air pollution can be reduced to a considerable extent. Compost manufacturing method helps to improve soil texture and increase the yield of crops. Use of compost manure can reduce the excessive use of pesticides and chemical fertilizer. The method for preparation of compost from pressmud is affordable to farmers in which simple and inexpensive equipment are used that are easily available in urban and rural areas. In India, composting is very important for sustainable development in agriculture.

Keywords

Sugarcane trash, Pressmud, Superphosphate, Microorganisms, Compost

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IJEP 40 (12) : 1348-1353 (2020)

Water Quality Analysis Of Ulsoor Lake : Pre And Post-Ganesha Festival

Latha V., Athufa Tabassum, Pallavi Gahlawat and Shaziya Sultana

Abstract

Urban lakes are the most reliable source of water in the cities during water crisis. Due to uncontrolled and unplanned urbanization, urban lakes are in the verge of extinction. Currently, rapid deterioration of lakes is a burning issue. Present study highlights the changes in physico-chemical characteristics of Ulsoor lake water prior to and after Ganesha festival. Four different sampling points were selected, depending on the source of inflow of pollutants. Significant increase was observed in pH, electrical conductivity, chloride, sulphate, bicarbonate, calcium and potassium concentrations after idol immersion. Contrarily, the concentration of magnesium and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) decreased following the immersion, affecting the natural composition of the lake water. Results indicate drastic changes in physico-chemical characteristics of water and highlights the need for usage of eco-safe material for idol manufacture. In addition to this, proper management of lake to maintain the ecological homeostasis is recommended.

Keywords

Ulsoor lake, Physico-chemical characteristics, Idol immersion

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IJEP 40 (12) : 1354-1356 (2020)

Algae As A Bioindicator To Determine Water Quality Of Kosi River At Bhagalpur And Katihar Districts Of North Bihar

Rashmi Kumari and Arvind Kumar

Abstract

The Kosi river was chosen as the study area in order to generate baseline data on water quality of lower stretches. Phytoplankton as pollution indicator using Palmer’s index was carried out at three sites from 2017-2018. Samples were collected on a seasonal basis (winter, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon) from Kosi river. The river is facing various anthropogenic activities, like extensive agricultural practices, sand mining and cattle wallowing. Phytoplankton is an assemblage of heterogenous microscopic forms of an aquatic ecosystem whose movement is more or less dependent upon water current. The phytoplankton is photoautotrophic organism having chlorophyll a and the primary producer in the base of the food chain of the aquatic ecosystem. Palmer’s index varies between 17.33 at site-I to 21 at site-III during the year 2017 of the study period, which indicate site-I has probable organic pollution and site-III has high organic pollution and during the year 2018, it varies between 12 at site-I to 20.6 at site-II, which indicate site-I has less organic pollution and site-II has high organic pollution. Site-I has low and probable organic pollution, site-II has high organic pollution and site-III has high organic pollution during both the years. Continuous monitoring of the Kosi river is necessary.

Keywords

Phytoplankton, Kosi river, Pollution, Anthropogenic activities, Palmer’s index

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