Fluoride, Its Sources And Effects: An Overview

IJEP 41(11): 1299-1305 : Vol. 41 Issue. 11 (November 2021)

Bhupinder Singh1* and Krishan Kumar2

1. Bhagat Phool Singh Mahila Vishwavidyalaya, Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Khanpur Kalan – 131 305, Sonepat, Haryana, India
2. Bhagat Phool Singh Mahila Vishwavidyalaya, Department of Management Studies, Khanpur Kalan – 131 305, Sonepat, Haryana, India


The presence of fluoride in safe range is beneficial for human health as it prevents dental cavities while in excess is highly dangerous, that causes fluorosis and other health ailments. About 65 million people in the country are having fluorosis of different kind. A survey of literature has shown that groundwater in 21 states of the Indian Republic is facing the problem of fluoride. The major cause of fluoride in Indian sub-continent groundwater is leaching of flouride from rock minerals of earth’s crust. Besides these anthropogenic activities, for example industrial discharges, aluminium smelter, brick kiln and air pollution from industries may also contribute to this problem. Generally, water is known as, principal source of fluoride intake but it is not always true. Thus total fluoride intake is governed by a lot of factors, for example fluoride content of water, food from endemic areas and intake of beverages, like tea, etc. Besides this, other factors have to be considered while calculating total fluoride intake, for example climatic condition, that is tropical or temperate, age, profession, economic condition, lifestyle, feeding habits and moisture, etc. Removal of excess fluoride from water is known as defluoridation. Using surface water and collection of rainwater for drinking purposes is the best method in absence of any treatment process. This review paper describes various sources of fluoride and its effects.


Groundwater, Health, Fluorosis, Skeletal, Spots


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