Phytoremediation Of Phenol Red Dye Using Biomediated Stannous Oxide Nanoparticle And Its Efficiency In Decolourization

IJEP 41(3): 243-249 : Vol. 41 Issue. 3 (March 2021)

Kalaiselvi Aasaithambi1*, Madhumitha Narayanan Kutty1, Jeba Sweetly Dharmadhas1, Gunabalan Madhumitha2 and Ramalingam Chidambaram3

1.   Karpagam Academy of Higher Education, Department of Biotechnology, Coimbatore – 641 021, India
2. Vellore Institute of Technology, Chemistry of Heterocycles and Natural Product Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, School of Advanced Sciences, Vellore – 632 014, India
3. Vellore Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology, School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Vellore – 632 014, India


Phytoremediation is a promising, cost-effective and eco-friendly approach in the treatment of polluted wastewater and industrial waste effluents. The aim of the study is to understand the potential effects of Catharanthus roseus leaf extract mediated stannous oxide nanoparticles (SnO) formation and its efficiency of dye degradation was investigated. The C. roseus was used for the first time as a reducing agent in the formation of SnO nanoparticles. The secondary metabolites present in plants were evaluated by GC-MS and its bioactive compounds are identified. The synthesized SnO nanoparticles were confirmed and supported by XRD, FTIR, Zeta, DLS, SEM with EDX and TEM with SAED pattern analysis.  Photocatalytic activity of SnO nanoparticles efficiency and its synergetic effects against dye degradation was estimated. Thus, C. roseus acts as a reducing agent in the formation of SnO nanoparticles and also helps in maintaining stability. Also, it is an eco-friendly approach with the effect of time in process of dye degradation. 


Photocatalytic degradation, C. roseus extract, Stannous oxide, Dye adsorption behaviour


  1. Sulaiman, G. M., et al. 2013. Green synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus chapmaniana leaves extract. Asian Pacific J. Tropical Biomedicine. 3(1): 58-63.
  2. Edison, T. J. I. and M. G. Sethuraman. 2012. Instant green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Terminalia chebula fruit extract and evaluation of their catalytic activity on reduction of methylene blue. Process Biochem.,47(9): 1351-1357.
  3. Mittal, A. K., C. Yusuf and U. C. Banerjee. 2013. Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts. Biotech. Adv., 31: 346-356.
  4. Makarov, V. V., et al. 2014. ‘Green’ nanotech-nologies: Synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plants. Acta Nature. 6(1): 35-44.
  5. Bharathi, A., et al. 2014. Catalytic activity of TiO2nanoparticles in the synthesis of some 2,3-disubstituted dihydroquinazolin-4 (1H)-ones. Chinese Chem. Letters. 25(2): 324-326.
  6. Roopan, S.M. and F.N. Khan. 2011. SnO2nano-particles mediated non-traditional synthesis of biologically active 9-chloro-6,13-dihydro-7-phenyl-5 H -indolo [3,2- c]-acridine derivatives. Med. Chem. Res., 20: 732-737.
  7. Iravani, S. 2011. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plants. Green Chem.,13(10): 2638-2650.
  8. Chandran, S. P., et al. 2006. Synthesis of gold nanotriangles and silver nanoparticles using aloe vera plant extract. Biotech. Progress. 22(2): 577-583
  9. Kim, S. P., M. Y. Choi and H. C. Choi. 2016. Photocatalytic activity of SnO2nanoparticles in methylene blue degradation. Mater. Res. Bulletin. 74: 85-89.
  10. Rani, P.V.A., et al. 2009. Cytotoxicity and geno-toxicity of silver nanoparticles in human cells. ACS Nano.3(2): 279-290.
  11. Joshi, H. M., et al. 2006. Gold nanoparticles as carriers for efficient transmucosal insulin deli-very. Langmuir. 22(1): 300-305.
  12. Gardea-Torresdey, J. L., et al. 2002. Formation and growth of Au nanoparticles inside live alfalfa plants. Nano Letters. 2(4): 397-401.
  13. Vinod, V. T. P., et al. 2011. A facile synthesis and characterization of Ag, Au and Pt nanoparticles using a natural hydrocolloid gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium). Colloids Surfaces B: Biointerfaces.83(2): 291-298.
  14. Ganesh, E. P., et al. 2012. Preparation and characterization of SnO2nanoparticles by hydrothermal route. Int. Nano Letters. 2: 17-23.
  15. Ying, Z., et al. 2004. SnO2nanowhiskers and their ethanol sensing characteristics. Nano Tech., 15: 1682-1687.
  16. Pourfayaz, F., et al. 2005. SnO2sensor selective to ethanol in presence of CO, LPG and CH4. Sensors Actuators B. 130: 625-629.
  17. Duan, J., et al. 2005. Single crystal SnO2zigzag nanobelts. J. American Chem. Soc., 127: 6180-6186.
  18. Srivastava, D. N., et al. 2002. Sonochemical synthesis of mesoporous tin oxide. Langmuir.18(10): 4160-4164.
  19. Wei, C., G. Debraj and C. Shaowei. 2008. Large-scale electrochemical synthesis of SnO2nano-particles. J. Mater. Sci., 43(15): 5291-5299.
  20. Dong, F. Z., et al. 2006. Size-controllable one-dimensinal SnO2nanocrystals: Synthesis, growth mechanism and gas sensing property. Phys. Chem., 8(42): 4874-4880.
  21. Vinodgopal, K. and P. V. Kamat. 1995. Enhanced rates of photocatalytic degradation of an azo dye using SnO2/TiO2coupled semiconductor thin films. Env. Sci. Tech., 29(3): 841-845.
  22. Akbal, F. and A. N. Onar. 2003. Photocatalytic degradation of phenol. Env. Monit. Assess., 83: 295-299.
  23. Lachheb, H., et al. 2002. Photocatalytic degradation of various types of dyes (Alizarin S, Crocein Orange G, Methyl Red, Congo Red, Methylene Blue) in water by UV-irradiated titania. Appl. Catal. B. Env., 39: 75-82.
  24. Forgacs, E., T. Cserhati and G. Oros. 2004. Removal of synthetic dyes from wastewaters. Env. Int., 30: 953-958.
  25. Bizani, E., et al. 2006. Photocatalytic decolorization and degradation of dye solutions and wastewaters in the presence of titanium dioxide. J. Hazard. Mater., 136(1): 85-94.
  26. Hajd, S. N., et al. 2004. Study of photocatalytic degradation of phenol. Desalination. 166: 347-352.
  27. Bhattacharjee, A., M. Ahmaruzzaman and T. Sinha. 2015. A novel approach for the synthesis of SnO2nanoparticles and its application as a catalyst in the reduction and photodegradation of organic compounds. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular Biomolecular Spectroscopy.136: 751-760.
  28. Elango, G., et al. 2015. Green synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles and its photocatalytic activity of phenol sulphonphthalein dye. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 145: 176-180.