Hexabromocyclododecane Based Toxicity In Aquatic Environments And Humans

IJEP 41(4): 412-418 : Vol. 41 Issue. 4 (April 2021)

Shanmugam Subbiah1*, Baskaran Ganesh Kumar2,3, Rathinasamy Baskaran4 and Radha Baburajan5

1. Bharathiar University, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Coimbatore – 641 046, Tamil Nadu, India
2. P.S.R. Arts and College, Department of Chemistry, Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu, India
3. P.S.R. Engineering College, Department of Humanities, Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu, India
4. Asia University, Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Taichung, Taiwan
5. Ashwanth Biomedical Diagnostics, Virudhunagar – 626 109, Tamil Nadu, India


Aquatic toxicology is considered as an investigation of the effects of toxic substances on living organisms, especially population, culture, environment and biosphere scales. Especially, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are the type of chemicals typically used to minimize consumer goods flammability and are considered as contaminants as they have become widely detached throughout the atmosphere and have also been shown to bioaccumulate within animals and humans. Moreover, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) has been commonly used in interior textiles, car cushions, electrical and electronic equipment, polyvinyl chloride wire, as a flame retardant and is omnipresent in all types of environmental media. Previous studies clearly documented that, these brominated flame retardants are highly toxic not only to fish but also to the other species that form the food chain. Through altering their operational status, the aquatic pollutions cause various deleterious effects on the non-target organism fish predominantly in an aquatic environment. HBCD produces lethal effects on biochemical and haematological, enzyme profile and levels of protein status. In this review, by analysing toxicity levels of toxicants, we have attempted to demonstrate the toxic effects of commonly used brominated flame retardants on uncommon fish species.


Hexabromocyclododecane, Aquatic environment, Biomarkers, Fish, Toxicity


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