IJEP 41(4): 427-431 : Vol. 41 Issue. 4 (April 2021)
1. Central Soil and Materials Research Station, New Delhi – 110 016, India
2. Galgotias University, Greater Noida – 203 201, Uttar Pradesh, India
Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, the surface water resources get severely polluted. All the major rivers flowing through the big cities receive heavy flux of sewage and industrial effluent. The river Yamuna is among the most polluted rivers which originate from Yamunotri glaciers (elevation 6300 m) in the Himalayas. The discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents has affected the quality of the Yamuna river. The poor water quality makes river water unfit for any purposes. The river water quality also affects the durability aspects of concrete structures along with the river bed. The dual hazards, that is heath and construction, making a severe impact on large numbers of population and structures. Impurities in the form of sewage, dirt and other floating materials contributed to downgrading water quality. At the same time, due to rapid modernization, a large number of upcoming construction projects can be seen in the catchment area of the river. In this scenario, it is important to evaluate its water quality to envisage its effect on concrete durability. The study carried out by CSMRS was focused on the water quality of the Yamuna river and nallahs flowing in the NCR region from Wazirabad to Okhla barrage. The water samples were analysed for in-situ parameters such as pH, total dissolved solids, temperature, conductivity, etc. The samples then brought to the laboratory for conducting detailed chemical analysis as per IS codes procedures. The results of the analysis show that the water quality of the river is degrading with the downstream course. All important parameters for health and construction point of view are almost above the permissible limits as per standard codes. The water is aggressive towards a durability point of view for concrete structures.
Water quality, River pollution, Durability of concrete, Domestic and industrial effluent, Aggressivity
- CPCB. 2006. Water quality status of Yamuna river (1999-2005). Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi.
- Dubey, S.K. and R. Maurya. 2018. Water quality status for Yamuna river. IJPRET. 6(8):277-284.
- Prabhakar, K., et al. 2016. Water quality assessment for its impact on concrete durability-A case study. IJMER. 3(2).
- Anand, B., et al. 2014. Influence of a chemical industry effluent on water quality of Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar-A long term study. Int. J. Eng. Sci. Invention. 3(1):7-13.
- CSMRS. 2009. Report on water quality to assess the long-term durability consideration of highly, acidic water on dam concrete of Kopili HE project, Assam.
- CSMRS. 2011-2014. Reports on the chemical analysis of reservoir water, seepage water and ash slurry/effluent samples from Rihand Dam project, U.P.
- IS:456-2000. Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete.
- IS:3025-2009. Methods for sampling and testing (physical and chemical) for water used in industry.
- APHA. 1989. Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.
- ACI 201. ZR-77. 1985. Guide to durable concrete. Concrete Int. Design and Construction. 7(9):26.
- ICOLD 71. 1989. Exposure of concrete in dams to special aggressive agents.
- USBR. Standard for sulphate aggressively. United States Bureau of Reclamation.
- French National Standard. 1985. Assessing. aggressively due to pH, ammonium, magnesium and sulphate ions. pp 18-011.