Physico-Chemical Analysis And Comparative Assessment Of Groundwater And Surface Water In Mumbai

IJEP 41(6): 658-662 : Vol. 41 Issue. 6 (June 2021)

Ashok Yashwant Thirukonda and Saumya Singh*

Indian Institute of Environment Management (IIEM), SIES, Navi Mumbai – 400 706, Maharashtra, India


The study was carried out to assess the impacts of anthropogenic activities mainly industrial activities on groundwater and surface water quality around Babrekar Nagar in Kandivali West, Mumbai. The water quality was assessed in terms of physico-chemical parameters. Groundwater (from the open well) and surface water (from pond) samples were collected from Babrekar Nagar in the month of April 2019. The physico-chemical parameters, such as pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, TDS, hardness, chloride concentration and BOD were determined as per the standard methods mentioned in APHA [1]. Analysis of data was done to detect any sign of deterioration in the groundwater and surface water quality. The results were compared with the drinking water quality standard (IS 10500) [2]. It was found from laboratory investigation that both groundwater and surface water were contaminated at sampling sites. This study will help to demarcate the polluted source so that suitable measures can be taken in reducing water pollution.


Physico-chemical analysis, Groundwater, Surface water, Water quality, Water pollution


  1. APHA. 1998. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (20th edn). American Public Health Association, Washington DC, USA.
  2. IS 10500. 2012. Drinking water-specification (2nd revision). Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  3. Ramakrishnaiah, C. R., C. Sadashivaiah and G. Ranganna. 2009. Assessment of water quality index for the groundwater in Tumkur taluk, Karnataka, India. J. Chem., 6(2): 523-530.
  4. Devi, S. and R. Premkumar. 2012. Physico-chemical analysis of groundwater samples near industrial area, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India. Int. J. ChemTech Res., 4(1): 29-34.
  5. Sharma, R. K., M. Yadav and R. Gupta. 2017. Water quality and sustainability in India: Challenges and opportunities (chapter 5). In Chemistry and water – The science behind sustaining the world’s most crucial resource. Ed Satinder Ahuja. pp 183-205.
  6. Patil, V. T. and P. R. Patil. 2010. Physico-chemical analysis of selected groundwater samples of Amalner town in Jalgaon district, Maharashtra, India. J. Chem., 7(1): 111-116.
  7. Raja, R. E., et al. 2002. Physico-chemical analysis of some groundwater samples of Kotputli town Jaipur, Rajasthan. Indian J. Env. Prot., 22(2): 137-140.
  8. WHO. 1996. Water quality monitoring – A practical guide to the design and implementation of freshwater quality studies and monitoring programmes. World Health Organization, Geneva.
  9. Joshi, D. M., A. Kumar and N. Agrawal. 2009. Studies on physico-chemical parameters to assess the water quality of river Ganga for drinking purpose in Haridwar district. RASAYAN J. Chem., 2(1): 195-203.
  10. Tyagi, S., et al. 2013. Water quality assessment in terms of water quality index. American J. Water Res., 1(3): 34-38.
  11. Sahu, P., et al. 2015. Physico-chemical analysis of Mula Mutha river, Pune. Civil Eng. Urban Planning: Int. J., 2(3): 37-46.
  12. Rajesh, V., et al. 2017. Assessment of quality of groundwater in certain villages nearby Krishna river, Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Int. J. Adv. Eng. Res. Sci., 4(4): 225-230.
  13. CPCB. 2007-08. Guidelines for water quality monitoring. Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi.