IJEP 41(9): 1071-1077 : Vol. 41 Issue. 9 (September 2021)
1. Manav Rachna Institute of Research and Studies, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Faridabad – 121 004, Haryana, India
2. Manav Rachna University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Science, Faridabad – 121 004, Haryana, India
3. National Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra – 136 119, Harayana, India
Coagulation-flocculation is an important technique used for removal of turbidity from water. The study aims to investigate effect of alum as coagulant in conjunction with polyelectrolytes as coagulant aids for removal of turbidity from surface water (pond and river water). Water was collected in March, June, September and December 2018 from both pond and river. Turbidity for pond water was 174 NTU, 192 NTU, 101.5 NTU and 147 NTU and for river water, it was 92 NTU, 251 NTU, 121 NTU and 161 NTU for March, June, September and December 2018, respectively. Conventional jar test was done for removal of turbidity by determining the pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, optimum mixing intensity and proper dosage. The two polyelectrolytes used were organopol 5470C and chemfloc 430A. Research aims to evaluate effect of organopol 5470C and chemfloc 430A used as coagulation and flocculation aids in different surface water and to examine their effectiveness for treatment of water. For pH range of 7.0-8.0, organopol 5470C shows better flocculation strength than chemfloc 430A in pond and river water, while, chemfloc 430A has better results at pH more than 8.0. The objective of work is to assess performance of two synthetic polyelectrolytes on turbidity of surface water.
Coagulant, Coagulation, Electrical conductivity, Flocculation, Polyelectrolytes, Turbidity
- Mahvi, A.H. and M. Razavi. 2005. Application of polyelectrolytes in turbidity removal from surface water. American J. Appl. Sci., 2(1):397–399.
- Bina, B., et al. 2009. Effectiveness of chitosan as natural coagulant aid in treating turbid waters. Iran J. Env. Health. 6(4):247–252.
- Nyström, R.S., et al. 2003. Flocculation of semi dilute calcite dispersion induced by anionic sodium polyacrylate – Cationic starch complexes. Langmuir. 19(9):3981–3986.
- Bolto, B. and J. Gregory. 2007. Organic polymers in water treatment. Water Res., 41(11):2301-2324.
- Divakaran, R. and V.N. Pillai. 2002. Flocculation of river silt using chitosan. Water Res., 36:2414–2418.
- Ganasan, V., et al. 1991. Trace metal concentration in water and sediments of river. Int. J. Ecol. Env. Sci., 17:225–236.
- Ajmal, M., et al. 1995. Distribution of heavy metals in plants and fish of the Yamuna river (India). Env. Monit. Assess., 5:205–214.
- Singh, S.K. and S. Kaushik. 2018. Qualitative study of yamuna water across the Delhi stretches. Int. J. Adv. Res., 6(5):1127-1138.
- Petzold, G., et al. 2003. Higher efficiency in the flocculation of clay suspension by combination of opposite charge polyelectrolytes. Colloid Surface A. 218(1):47–57.
- Moussa, P.A. and A.I. Zouboulis. 2009. A new inorganic-organic composite coagulant, consisting of polyferric sulphate (PFS) and polyacrylamide. Water Res., 43:3511–3524.
- Tzoupanos, N.D. and A.I. Zoubouli. 2011. Preparation, characterization and application of novel composite coagulants for surface water treatment. Water Res., 45(12).3614–3626.
- Tripathy, T. and B. R. De. 2006. Flocculation: A new way to treat wastewater. J. Phys. Sci., 10:93–127.
- Zeng, D., et al. 2008. Application of chitosan flocculant to water treatment. Carbohydr. Polym., 71(1):135–139.
- Buchhammer, H.M., et al. 2000. Nano particle based on polyelectrolyte complexes : Effect of structure on net charge on sorption capability on solved organic molecules. Colloid Polym. Sci., 278(9):841–847.
- Theodoro, J.D.P., et al. 2013. Coagulants and natural polymers : Perspective for treatment of water. Plastic Polymer Tech., 2(3): 55–62.
- Laue, C. and D. Hunkeler. 2006. Chitosan graft acrylamide polyelectrolyte: Synthesis, flocculation and modeling. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 102(1): 885–896.
- Yu, X. and P. Somasundaran. 1993. Enhanced flocculation with double flocculants. Colloid Surface A. 81:17–23.
- Fan, A., et al. 2000. A study of dual polymer flocculation. Colloid Surface A. 162 (1):141–148.
- Kapoor, J.K., et al. 2015. Optimization of coagulation-flocculation process for food industry waste water treatment using polyelectrolytes with inorganic coagulants. J. Indian Chem. Soc., 92:1697-1703.
- APHA. 2012. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (22nd edn).
American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.