Failure Risk in Refilled Drinking Water Technologies Based on Ultraviolet, Ozonation and Reverse Osmosis

IJEP 42(1): 124-128 : Vol. 42 Issue. 1 (January 2022)

Okik Hendriyanto Cahyonugroho1*, Ram Babu Pachwarya2, Gabriela Veronica1, Yayok Suryo Purnomo1 and Euis Nurul Hidayah1

1. University of Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Jawa Timur, Department of Environmental Engineering, Surabaya, Indonesia
2. University of Delhi, Department of Chemistry, MNC, New Delhi, India


Safe drinking water is one of the primary needs of human beings. Alongwith social progress water treatment technologies are also developing rapidly. Due to high population density water sources are getting contaminated through some natural and anthropogenic activities. Now the civic society of urban and rural areas are bound to new use of technology to get safe drinking water. Some people are choosing alternate ways to meet their safe water needs, for example bottled drinking water. Many technologies have been invented to fulfil need for safe drinking water and most of these technologies are based on ultraviolet (UV), ozonation, RO-reverse osmosis principles. However, involvements of risk of failure of above technologies / machines / systems / storage are also a matter of great concern. The aim of this study was to analyse failure risk possibility involved with refilled drinking water (RDW) technologies. We also observed failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) which was defined on the basis of severity, occurrence and detection in terms of risk priority number (RPN). The RDW samples were taken from 25 RDW stores / machines / places / systems, which were based on ultraviolet (UV), ultraviolet-ozonation (UV-Oz) and reverse osmosis (RO) technologies. We have analyzed various factors, such as man, habits, material, method, machine and environment to collect supporting data through observation and failure mode of RDW storage/systems. We have determined RPN on the basis of severity, detection and occurrence factors. We have observed highest RPN scale value for UV and UV-ozone technologies was contact time with water, while the highest RPN scale value for reverse osmosis was cleaning of different filter cartridges and RO membrane. The high value of RPN means high risk involved with the technology and that should be considered for further operation and maintenance.


Refilled drinking water, Failure risk, Risk priority, Ultraviolet, Ozonation, Reverse osmosis


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