IJEP 42(10): 1234-1240 : Vol. 42 Issue. 10 (October 2022)
Urmia University, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Iran
Increasing fertilizer application to compensate for nutrient deficiency and ensure food security has caused leaching of more nitrate through sub-surface drainage and the spread of eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems. Woodchip bioreactors are a well-known method for removing nitrate from agricultural effluents. However, there is not enough knowledge about the performance of native woodchips in semi-arid ecosystems. 9 treatments, including 3 woodchips and 3 hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 5, 12 and 24 hr were studied in 3 repetitions. Studied woodchips, walnut, beech and poplar were chosen from native trees of Urmia lake basin, known as a semi-arid region. The results disclosed that the HRT and woodchip significantly affected the nitrate removal rate (P<0.05). Walnut and beech woodchips had the highest and lowest nitrate reduction capability, respectively. The study showed an increase of about 16% in the nitrate removal efficiency in all woodchips due to an increase in the HRT from 5 to 12 hr. There were no significant differences between the HRTs of 12 and 24 hr (P>0.05). The results of this study confirm the desirable performance of walnut woodchip and 12 hr HRT in nitrate removal under semi-arid conditions.
Agricultural wastewater, biological process, nitrate reduction, Urmia lake basin
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