Effects of Chemical Admixtures on the Various Properties of High-Performance Concrete – A Review

IJEP 42(13): 1632-1640 : Vol. 42 Issue. 13 (Conference 2022)

Arun Singh Chahar and Priyaranjan Pal*

Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, Department of Civil Engineering, Prayagraj- 211 004, Uttar Pradesh, India


A literature-based study has been carried out to review the impact of chemical admixtures on various properties of high-performance concrete (HPC). Over the past few years, HPC has been allied with much workable, stronger, durable and sustainable building materials. HPC contains the same basic constituents as traditional concrete, but it has a totally unlike microstructure. Some important properties of HPC are low water-binding ratio, high workability, low heat of hydration, high strength, low permeability, high modulus of elasticity, high durability, resistance to chemical attack, cost-effectiveness, etc. Chemical admixtures greatly influence the HPC as compared to conventional concrete. This paper includes the usage of chemical admixtures in preparing high-performance concrete and shows their impacts on various mechanical and physical properties. The study aims to perceive that chemical admixtures switch the properties of concrete by changing its durability, strength, water-resistance capacity, workability and many others. In addition, this paper has tried to recognize the effective dosage of chemical admixture, which needs to be endorsed, else, the concrete’s properties take a negative turn. Numerous chemical admixtures are available that boost the various properties of HPC. This study also shows the execution of certain vital chemical admixtures on HPC.


HPC, Mineral admixture, Chemical admixture, Compressive strength, Workability, Durability


  1. Bui, N.K., T. Satomi and H. Takahashi. 2018. Effect of mineral admixtures on properties of recycled aggregate concrete at high temperature. Constr. Build. Mater., 184:361-373. DOI: 10.1016/j.con buildmat.2018.06.237.
  2. Thiyaneswaran, M.P., L.R. Jenova and K.S. Navaneethan. 2021. Review paper on material properties of high performance concrete. Conf. Series Mater. Sci. Eng., 1055: 012054. DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/1055/1/012054.
  3. Mohammed, T.U., et al. 2017. Influence of chemical admixtures on fresh and hardened properties of prolonged mixed concrete. Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2017: 9187627. DOI: 10.1155/2017/9187627.
  4. ASTM C 494. 2020. Standard specification for chemical admixtures for concrete. ASTM International.
  5. IS 9103. 1999. Specification for concrete admixtures. Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.
  6. IS 15388. 2003 Specification for silica fume. Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.
  7. IS 3812. 2013. Specification for pulverized fuel ash. Part 1: For use as pozzolana in cement, cement mortar and concrete. Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.
  8. IS 12089. 1987. Specification for granulated slag for the manufacture of Portland slag cement. Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.
  9. Faqe, H., H. Dabaghh and A. Mohammed. 2020. Natural admixture as an alternative for chemical admixture in concrete technology: A review. J. Duhok University. 23(2): 301-308.
  10. Cui, J. 2016. Effect of chemical admixture on durability of concrete. Chem. Eng. Trans., 55: 439-444. DOI: 10.3303/CET1655074.
  11. Khasan, M.A., V. Solovyova and D. Solovyov. 2018. High-strength concrete with new organic mineral complex admixture. MATEC Web Conf. Int. Sci. Conf. Env. Sci. Const. Industry. 193:03019. DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/201819303019.
  12. Ferrara, L., V. Krelani and F. Moretti. 2016. On the use of crystalline admixtures in cement based construction materials: From porosity reducers to promoters of self healing. Smart Mater. Struct., 25: 084002. DOI: 10.1088/0964-1726/25/8/084 002.
  13. Neville, A.M. 1974. Properties of concrete (5th edn). Pearson Education Limited, England. pp 245-267.
  14. Yaphary, Y.L., R.H. Lam and D. Lau. 2017. Chemical technologies for modern concrete production. Procedia Eng., 172: 1270-1277.
  15. Poongodi, K., et al. 2019. Effect of mineral admixtures on early age properties of high performance concrete. IOP Conf. Series Mater. Sci. Eng., 561: 012067. DOI:10.1088/1757-899X/561/1/012 06 7.
  16. Harilal, M., et al. 2019. High performance green concrete (HPGC) with improved strength and chloride ion penetration resistance by synergistic action of fly ash, nanoparticles and corrosion inhibitor. Constr. Build. Mater., 198: 299-312.
  17. Rodriguez, F.J.V., et al. 2020. Effect of mineral aggregates and chemical admixtures as internal curing agents on the mechanical properties and durability of high-performance concrete. Mater., 13(9): 2090. DOI: 10.3390/ma13092090.
  18. Amin, M., B.A. Tayeh and I.S. Agwa. 2020. Effect of using mineral admixtures and ceramic wastes as coarse aggregates on properties of ultrahigh-performance concrete. J. Clean. Prod., 273: 123073. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.1230 73.
  19. Tunc, E.T. 2019. An experimental study based on the strength properties of concrete containing chemical admixture. European J. Sci. Tech., 17:901-908. DOI: 10.31590/ejosat.649737.
  20. Concha, N.C. and M.A. Baccay. 2020. Effects of mineral and chemical admixtures on the rheological properties of self compacting concrete. GEO-MATE J., 18(66): 24-29.
  21. Kroviakov, S., et al. 2019. Comparison of strength and durability of concretes made with sulphate-resistant Portland cement and Portland cement with pozzolana additive. E. J. Faculty Civil Eng. Osijek-e-GFOS.10(19): 81-86.
  22. Young, B.A., et al. 2019. Can the compressive strength of concrete be estimated from knowledge of the mixture proportions? New insights from statistical analysis and machine learning methods. Cem. Concr. Res.,115: 379-388.
  23. Ige, J.A., et al. 2017. Influence of groundnut shell ash (GSA) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) on strength of concrete. Annals Faculty Eng. Hunedoara Int. J. Eng., 15(4): 209-214.
  24. Anifowose, M.A., et al. 2018. Effect of curing age on concrete grade 20 produced with groundnut shell ash (GSA) blended calcium chloride (CaCl2). 10th International Conference on Science, engineering and environment technology (ICON-SEET). Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun state. Proceedings, 3(12): 80-89.
  25. Buari, T.A., et al. 2019. Effects of varying recycled glass and groundnut shell ash on strength and durability properties of self consolidating high performance concretes (SCHPC). Int. Res. J. Eng. Tech., 6(3): 33-43.
  26. Ige, J.A., et al. 2018. Assessment of rice husk ash (RHA) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) on compressive strength of concrete grade 20. Int. J. Eng. Res. Africa. 40: 22-29. DOI: 10.4028/www.scien tific.net/JERA.40.22.
  27. Salain, I.M.A.K. 2019. Using calcium chloride as an accelerator for Portland pozzolan cement concrete compressive strength development. Conf. Series Mater. Sci. Eng., 615: 012016. DOI: 10.108 8/1757-899X/615/1/012016.
  28. Tijani, M.A., et al. 2021. Effect of sorghum husk ash and calcium chloride on compressive strength of grade 20 concrete. Conf. Series Mater. Sci. Eng., 1036: 012054. DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/1036/1/012054.
  29. Wang, H., et al., 2020. Study on the influence of compound rust inhibitor on corrosion of steel bars in chloride concrete by electrical parameters. Constr. Build. Mater., 262: 120763. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.120763.
  30. Sangoju, B., B.H. Bharatkumar and R. Gettu. 2017. Effect of calcium nitrite inhibitor on mechanical and durability parameters of concrete. International Conference on Advances in construction materials and systems (ICACMS). Proceedings, 2:427-436.
  31. Abushanab, A. and W. Alnahhal. 2021. Combined effects of treated domestic wastewater, fly ash and calcium nitrite toward concrete sustainability. J. Build. Eng.,44: 103240. DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe. 2021.103240.
  32. Song, Y., et al. 2019. Research progress of nitrite corrosion inhibitor in concrete. Int. J. Corro-sion.DOI: 10.1155/2019/3060869.
  33. Reddy, V.S., T. Prashanth and P. Prashanth. 2020. Effect of organic and inorganic corrosion inhibitors on strength properties of concrete. 2nd International Conference on Design and manufacturing aspects for sustainable energy (ICMED 2020). E3S Web Conf., 184(8): 01112. DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/202018401112.
  34. Ariyachandra, E., et al. 2020. Effect of NO2sequestered recycled concrete aggregate (NRCA) on mechanical and durability performance of concrete Cem. Concr. Res.,137(36): 106210. DOI: 10.10 16/j.cemconres.2020.106210.
  35. Faried, A.S., et al. 2021. Mechanical and durability properties of ultra-high performance concrete incorporated with various nano waste materials under different curing conditions. J. Build. Eng.,43: 102569. DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2021.102569.
  36. Chugh, B., et al. 2021. Sustainable corrosion inhibitors for concrete. Mater. Res. Foundations. 107: 130-146. DOI: 10.21741/9781644901496-6.
  37. Pan, C., et al. 2020. Effects of corrosion inhibitor and functional components on the electrochemical and mechanical properties of concrete subject to chloride environment. Constr. Build. Mater., 260: 119724. DOI:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.1197 24.
  38. Meiyan, H., et al. 2020. Inhibition resistance and mechanism of migrating corrosion inhibitor on reinforced concrete under coupled carbonation and chloride attack. J. Build. Eng.,76: 107398. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.119724.
  39. Adamu, M., et al. 2021. Durability performance of pervious concrete containing rice husk ash and calcium carbide: A response surface methodology approach. Case Studies Constr. Mater., 14: e00547. DOI: 10.1016/j.cscm.2021.e00547.
  40. Pathan, M.A., R. Ahmed and M. Maira. 2019. Study of coarse aggregate characteristics on strength properties of high performance concrete using chemical admixtures. Saudi J. Civil Eng., 33-38. DOI: 10.21276/sjce.2019.3.3.3.