Box-Behnken Model to Optimize Media Layer in Hybrid Constructed Wetland for Municipal Wastewater Treatment

IJEP 42(13): 1641-1646 : Vol. 42 Issue. 13 (Conference 2022)

K.K. Singh* and R.C. Vaishya

Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, Department of Civil Engineering, Prayagraj – 211 004, Uttar Pradesh, India


In developing nations, constructed wetland approaches for municipal wastewater treatment have expanded modestly. This necessitates research into the use of cold drink plastic bottle chips (CDPBC) media as an alternate natural media layer approach in hybrid constructed wetlands (HCW). This part examined the use of bottle chip media in the HCW operational mechanism for wastewater treatment. To optimise the chip medium thickness conditions, response surface methodology (RSM) based on a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied. The removal efficiency of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD3) was investigated using 29 experimental results run by BBD for four operational parameters- CDPBC media layer (10-25 mm), flow rate (40-74.48 L/day), hydraulic loading rate (HLR) (0.409-0.761 m/day) and mixing rate (15-25 rpm). The acquired data were analysed using ANOVA and a quadratic model as a function of operational parameters, with a significant regression coefficient (R2>0.966) at a 95% confidence level. TSS (87.92%), COD (88.77%) and BOD3 (92.38%) were achieved with one out of 100 distinct solutions with numerically optimised CDPBC media layer (6.05 mm), flow rate (72.45 L/day), HLR (0.54 m/day) and mixing rate (21.33 rpm) parameters. The best scenario was confirmed, revealing that modifying the medium layer, flow rate and HLR may enhance removal efficiency. The research suggests that the CDPBC media layer in HCW might be employed as a viable natural media in municipal wastewater treatment in the future.


Hybrid constructed wetland, CDPBC media, Response surface methodology, Box Behnken design, Municipal wastewater


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