IJEP 42(3): 336-341 : Vol. 42 Issue. 3 (March 2022)
1. Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, Chennai – 600 119, Tamil Nadu, India
2. Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Centre for Remote Sensing and Geoinformatics, Chennai – 600 119, Tamil Nadu, India
Monitoring eutrophication is an important part of evaluating and managing lake ecosystems. The present study aims to sample and analyze the water quality of various lakes in and around Chennai city for the sustainable development of water bodies. The experiment was carried out by collecting water samples during various seasons and parameters, such as total phosphorus, chlorophyll and Secchi depth were used to calculate the trophic state index (TSI). The results are used to classify the lakes according to TSI. Several methods have been adopted for the classification of lakes and to indicate their trophic status. The Carlson’s trophic state index, the most commonly adopted method, based on productivity, is used to determine the TSI. Fifteen lakes were selected and samples were collected during rainy, winter and summer seasons during the year 2017. Seasonal fluctuations in the parameters (total phosphorus, Secchi depth, chlorophyll-a) were analyzed. Based on the parameters Carlson’s trophic state index (CTSI) was calculated for each lake and accordingly lakes were classified. The CTSI values in this study range between 32-88. Among the selected lakes many were classified as eutrophic and hyper-eutrophic based on CTSI value. Lakes Chetpet and Porur are classified as oligotrophic and mesotrophic, respectively. The seasonal fluctuations in the trophic state and effect of climate change, alarm the possibility of progression from oligotrophic to mesotrophic lakes would be helpful for policymakers and lake restoration programmes.
Eutrophication, Phosphorus, Secchi disc, Trophic state index
- Horppila, J., et al. 2015. Oxygen flux and penetration depth in the sediments of aerated and non-aerated lake basins. Int. Reviews Hydrobiol., 100: 106-115.
- Rast, W. 2009. Lakes: Freshwater storehouses and mirrors of human activities (briefing note). Assessment Programme Office for Global Water Assessment, Division of Water Sciences, UNESCO, Perugia, Italy.
- Fisher, T.R., et al. 1972. Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton in Chesapeake bay. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser., 82:51-63.
- Scheffer, M. 1998. Ecology of shallow lakes. Chapman and Hall, London.
- Havens, Karl. 2012. Florida Sea Grant UF/IFAS Extension Gainesvilte, Fl. This document is SFEF-189 one of the series of the Sea Grant Department UF/IFAS Extension. Available at : http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/.
- Moss, B. 1988. Ecology of freshwaters: Man and Medium, Past to Future (2nd edn). Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.
- Heiskary, S.A. 1985. Trophic state of Mimesota lakes. MQCA, Roseville.
- Baker, P.D., et al. 2001. Preliminary evidence of toxicity associated with the benthic cyanobacterium Phormidium in South Australia. Env. Toxicol., 16: 506-511.
- Harper, D. 1992. Eutrophication of freshwaters: Principles, problems and restoration. Chapman and Hall, London.
- Hosmani, S.P. 2010. Trophic state index in conservation of lake ecosystems. Adv. Plant Sci., 23(11): 593-596.
- Carlson, R.E. 1977. A trophic state index for lakes. Limnol. Oceano., 22(2):361-369.
- Sandep, B.M., S. Srikantaswamiy and S.P. Hosmani. 2008. The study of phytoplankton dynamics in two lakes of Mysore, Karnataka state. J. Nature Env. Poll. Tech., 7(4):300-306.
- Sharma, M.P., A. Kumar and S. Rajvanshi. 2010. Assessment of trophic state of lakes : A case of Mansi Ganga lake in India. Hydro. Nepal : J. Water Energy Env., 6:65-72. DOI:10.3126/hn.V610. 4198.
- APHA. 1995. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington D.C.
- Lorenzen, C.J. 1967. Determination of chlorophyll and phaeopigments : Spectrophotometric equations. Limnol. Oceanogr., 12(2) : 343-346.
- Prasad, G.D. and A. Siddaraju. 2012. Carlson’s trophic state index for the assessment of trophic status of two lakes in Mandya district. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res., 3(5):2992-2996.
- Carvalho, L. and A. Kirka. 2003. Changes in shallow lake functioning response to climate changes and nutrient reduction. Hydrobiologia. 506:789-796.
- Bergman, E. 1999. Changes in the nutrient load and lake water chemistry in lake Ringsjoin, Southern Sweden from 1966-1996. Hydrobiologia. 404:9-18.
- Horne, A.J. and C.R. Goldman. 1994. Limnology (2nd edn). McGraw Hill, New York.
- Carlson, R.E. 1980. More complication in the chlorophyll-a Secchi’s disc relationship. Limnol. Oceanogr., 25:378-382.