Wetlands in India: A Review of Ecological Implications, Distribution, Vulnerabilities and Conservation Strategies

IJEP 42(3): 357-366 : Vol. 42 Issue. 3 (March 2022)

Shiv Shankar1* and Anuradha Mishra2

1. Gautam Buddha University, Department of Environmental Science, School of Vocational Studies and Applied Sciences, Grater Noida – 201 312, U.P., India
2. Gautam Buddha University, Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Vocational Studies and Applied Sciences, Grater Noida – 201 312, U.P., India


Wetlands, as the world’s most productive natural ecosystems, render enumerable ecological services, chiefly purification of water, flood control, carbon sink and stability of shoreline at a local and global scale. Globally, the wetlands are under tremendous pressure due to negative socio-economic and anthropogenic activities. In Indian subcontinent too, the issue of wetland degradation has cropped as a serious environmental concern. Aquatic habitats, namely tanks, ponds and lakes are under tremendous pressure due to unsustainable practices leading towards their degradation. Besides, conservation values and socio-economic significance of the wetlands have been deeply hampered due to the unavailability of authentic and updated information related to their development of policy, distribution on the Indian subcontinent, legal framework and government policies, etc. In the aforesaid backdrop, the present manuscript critically reviews the ecological implications of wetlands, their distribution, vulnerabilities and conservation strategies concerning the Indian subcontinent.


Wetlands, Ecological services, Carbon sink, Anthropogenic activities, Ecological implications, Conservation strategies


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