IJEP 42(4): 443-450 : Vol. 42 Issue. 4 (April 2022)
1. Islamic Azad University, Department of Soil Science, Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran
2. Ponta Grossa State University, Department of Structural and Molecular Biology and Genetics, Ponta Grossa, Parana, Brazil
3. University of Minnesota, Biotechnology Institute, Minnesota, USA
4. University of Kurdistan, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Sanandaj, Iran
Much of the scientific literature and the lay community consider that the herbicides are specific against the weeds in the agricultural system, however, their application in the soil can affect the bacterial population deleteriously. The toxic effect of herbicides on non-target microorganisms may influence the degradation of organic matter resulting in changes to nutrient cycling. There is, therefore, a need to obtain data on how herbicides physiologically affect agricultural soil microbiota. In the present study, different strains of bacteria incubated in media containing different concentrations of glyphosate and paraquat were assessed over two incubation terms. In this study the negative impact of the glyphosate and paraquat on the bacterial population was observed. The greatest bacterial population developed in media containing concentrations of glyphosate and paraquat was observed with strains Pseudomonas graminis, while Bacillus megaterium showed the lowest biomass production in response to all concentrations of glyphosate and paraquat. Based on the results obtained, Pseudomonas graminis was determined to be resistant to the herbicides examined and may be useful for future bioremediation studies of these compounds in soil. The positive or negative effect of herbicide on the bacteria depends on the different factors like herbicide dosage, bacteria strain, incubation time and chemical conditions of the culture medium. An increase in the bacterial population in the high concentration of glyphosate and paraquat (>100 mg/kg) reveals that these bacteria are resistant to high doses of herbicides and this result can be helpful in polluted soil adaptation and remediation.
Bacterial physiology, Tolerance, Herbicides, Bacteria strains, Bacterial adaptation
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