Spatio-temporal Study of Pond Water Quality using Principal Component Analysis: A Geographical Study of Jaunpur City

IJEP 42(5): 606-612 : Vol. 42 Issue. 5 (May 2022)

Dipak Prasad1, Ashutosh Singh2, Brototi Biswas3* and Srabani Sanyal4

1. DDU Gorakhpur University, Department of Geography, Gorakhpur – 273 009, U.P., India
2. Mizoram University, Department of Geography, Pachhunga University College Campus, Aizawl – 796 004, Mizoram, India
3. Mizoram University, Department of Geography and RM, Aizawl – 796 004, Mizoram, India
4. Banaras Hindu University, Department of Geography, Varanasi – 221 005, U.P., India


Green spaces, such as parks; urban forests; vacant plot, gardens and yards, campus areas, landfills and blue spaces, including streams, lakes, ponds, artificial swales and storm water retention ponds are the diverse of habitats of urban ecosystem. To offer a safe shelter in the urban environment; wetlands, ponds, swales and trenches for water storage can promote the biodiversity of aquatic organisms. Ponds of a geographical area always play an significant role to preserve the potentiality of groundwater, maintenance of aesthetic beauty with their untouched view for their locality, etc. Anthropogenic pollutants (sewage flow, solid waste, road salt and heavy metals, etc.), invasive species and active mismanagement—particularly the removal of riparian vegetation are the major anthropogenic stressors with results of the worsen condition of aquatic urban biodiversity. The heavy load of sewage water and solid waste in absence of sewerage connection or negligence of waste collection in the city are poorly reducing the area of water bodies, for example ponds, lakes, etc.  Being a developing country, India, have prosperous freshwater resources in the form of rivers, kunds, ponds and lakes, etc. District Jaunpur of Uttar Pradesh is popularly known for its ponds. The city, situated on the bank of river Gomti which bisects the city of Jaunpur (located between 25°44’ to 25°46’ north latitude and 82°40’ to 82°43’ east longitude) in the north and south directions. The developments, urbanization and load of the various pollutant sources lead to deterioration of the ponds. Population growth and urbanisation rate in the city is very high during last few decades. There are about nine to ten ponds are located within the city. This study aims to investigate the level of physico-chemical properties, spatio-temporal distribution and also wish to find out the major component (using PCA) among all the parameters of major urban ponds in the ecological system of Jaunpur city which is located within the municipal area of the city.


Water quality, Water pollutants, Physico-chemical characteristics, Principal component analysis


  1. Lawrence, I. and P. Breen. 1998. Design guidelines: Stormwater pollution control ponds and wetlands. Cooperative Research Centre for Freshwater Ecology.
  2. Miller, I.W. 2009. Farm ponds for water, fish and lifelihoods. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  3. Yadav, A., et al. 2016. Urban pond water contamination in India. J. Env. Prot., 7:52-59.
  4. Soni, R.N. and S.A. Bhatt. 2008. Periodical ecological study of urban ponds in Vadodara Tall, 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference. Proceedings, pp 1591-1596.
  5. Bhatt, M.M., et al. 2009. Water quality status of some urban ponds of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. J. Wetlands Ecol., 2:67-73.
  6. Bhatt, M.M., et al. 2012. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in urban pond ecosystems. Universal J. Env. Res. Tech., 2(4):225-232.
  7. Liu, C., K. Lin and Y. Kuo. 2003. Application of factor analysis in the assessment of groundwater quality in a blackfoot disease area in Taiwan. Sci. Total Env., 313(1-3):77-89.
  8. Drusilla, R., A. Kumaresan and M. Narayanan.2004. Studies on the hydrography of a lotic ecosystem-Killar at Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Poll. Res., 23:515-521.
  9. Shardendu and B.S. Ambust. 1988. Limnological studies of a rural and urban tropical aquatic ecosystem oxygenic forms and ionic strength. Trop. Ecol., 29:98-109.
  10. WHO. 2003. Chloride in drinking water. WHO guidelines for drinking water quality, health criteria and other supporting information (2nd edn, vol 2). World Health Organization, Geneva.
  11. WHO. 2003a. Total dissolved solids in drinking water. WHO guidelines for drinking water quality, health criteria and other supporting information (2nd end, vol 2). World Health Organization, Geneva.
  12. MPCA. 2008. Turbidity. Description, impact on water quality, sources, measures : A general overview. Water quality/impaired waters 3-21. Minnesota Pollution Control Agency.