Spatial Distribution of Cd, Cu, Pb and Ni in Dust, plants and water along Jhang Road, Faisalabad

IJEP 42(8): 920-927 : Vol. 42 Issue. 8 (August 2022)

Rizwan Ullah, Kashir Ali*, Ghulam Murtaza, Abdur Rehman and Zaman Ali

University of Agriculture, Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Faisalabad, Punjab – 38000, Pakistan


Air pollution is a global problem. It adversely affects the quality of soil, plants and water. Air pollution on the side of the road is damaging air quality on a regular basis. Previous studies and daily reports from the Ministry of Environment show that there is an increase in particle filtration in Pakistani air. To quantify the focus of specific issues this study was conducted on Jhang road, Faisalabad. Samples of dust, plants and water were collected along the road and in-depth analysis of selected heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) was done. Pollution data near selected sites and the effect of selected air pollution on the body parameters of the selected plant were recorded. The concentrations of Cu (1.95 mg/kg), Pb (0.858 mg/kg) and Cd (0.735 mg/kg) in maize crops were the highest in the Babu Wala area of Jhang road and Ni concentration was the highest (4.525 mg/kg) in the Said Abad site. The concentrations of Cu and Cd in the dust collected from Babu Wala were 2.14 and 0.80 mg/kg, respectively. The concentration of Ni was the highest (2.32 mg/kg) in the Risala Wala area and the concentration of Pb (0.98 mg/kg) was the highest at the Said Abad site. In the Risala Wala area, Cu and Cd concentration in irrigation water was 0.15 and 0.11 mg/L, respectively. However, the Ni and Pb concentrations in irrigation water were found higher than the others in Liaqat Abad area. The concentration of heavy metals was more in samples collected nearby the roads and was less in samples as the distance increased from roadside.


Heavy metals, Dust, Wastewater, Spatial distribution, Soil quality, Air pollution


  1. Al-Khashman, O.A. 2004. Heavy metal distribution in dust and soils from the work place in Karak industrial estate, Jordan. Atmos. Env., 38(39): 6803-6812.
  2. Howari, F.M., Y. A. Rukhan and P.C. Goodell. 2004. Heavy meatal pollution of soils along North Shuna Aqaba highway, Jordon. Int. J. Env. Poll., 22:597-607.
  3. Nabulo, G., H.O. Origa and M. Diamond. 2006. Assessment of lead, cadmium and zinc contamination of roadside soils, surface films and vegetables in Kampala city, Uganda. Env. Res., 101(1):42-52.
  4. Abechi, E.S., et al. 2010. Evolution of heavy metals in roadside soil of major street in Jos metropolis, Nigeria. J. Env. Chem. Ecotoxicol., 2:28-39.
  5. Maboguje, A.L. 1980. Development process-A spatial perspective. Hutchinson and Co. Publishers Ltd., U.K. pp 234-244.
  6. Cobb, G.P., et al. 2000. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine waste. Env. Toxicol. Chem., 19(3):600-607.
  7. Li, X., et al. 2004. The study of metal contamination in urban soils of Hong Kong using a GIS-based approach. Env. Poll., 129(1):113-124.
  8. Khan, M.N., et al. 2011. Assessment of heavy metal toxicants in the roadside soil along the N-5 National highway, Pakistan. Env. Monit. Assess., 182(1):587-595.
  9. Wawer, M., et al. 2015. Traffic-related pollutants in roadside soils of different countries in Europe and Asia. Water Air Soil Poll., 226(7):216-230.
  10. Wan, X., M. Lei and T. Chen. 2016. Cost-benefit calculation of phytoremediation technology for heavy metal contaminated soil. Sci. Total Env., 563:796-602.
  11. WHO. 1996. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. 41st report of the joint FAO/WHO (technical report series). Expert Committee on Food Additives, World Health Organization, Geneva.
  12. Silva, J.A. and R.S. Uchida. 2000. Plant nutrient management in Hawaii’s soils : Approaches for tropical and subtropical agriculture. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii, Manoa.
  13. Macnicol, R.D. and H.T. Beckett. 1985. Critical tissue concentrations of potentially toxic elements. Plant Soil. 85(1):107-129.
  14. Awashthi, S.K. 2000. Prevention of Food Adulteration Act No. 37 of 1954. Central and State rules as amended for 1999 (3rd edn). Ashoka Law House, New Delhi.
  15. Waseem, A., et al. 2014. Pollution status on Pakistan : A retrospective review on heavy metal contamination of water, soil and vegetables. Biomed. Res. Int., 2014:813206.
  16. Pak EPA. 2008. National standard for drinking water quality. Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan.
  17. Sarwar, F., et al. 2019. Computing the parametric geo-accumulation and ecological risk indices of some heavy metals along on Charsadda-Peshawar road, Pakistan. Int. J. Economic Env. Geol., 10(3): 109-117.
  18. Mafuyai, G.M., et al. 2015. Heavy metals contamination in roadside dust along major traffic roads in Jos metropolitan area, Nigeria. J. Env. Earth Sci., 5(5):48-57.
  19. Deepalakshmi, A.P., et al. 2014. Leaves of higher plants as indicators of heavy metal pollution along the urban roadways. Int. J. Sci. Tech., 3(6):340-346.
  20. Farid, G., et al. 2015. Heavy metals (Cd, Ni and Pb) contamination of soils, plants and waters in Madina town of Faisalabad metropolitan and preparation of GIS based maps. Adv. Crop. Sci. Tech., 4(2):693-706.
  21. Johnsson, F., J. Kyarstad and J. Rootzen. 2019. The threat to climate change mitigation posed by the abundance of fossil fuels. Climate Policy. 19(2):258-274.
  22. Rahul, J. and M.K. Jain. 2016. Effect of heavy metals on some selected roadside plants and its morphological study. Nature Env. Poll. Tech., 15(4): 1133-1142.
  23. Grantz, D.A., J.H.B. Garner and D.W. Johnson. 2003. Ecological effects of particulate matter. Env. Int., 29(2-3):213-239.
  24. Hu, H.W., et al. 2016. Field-based evidence for copper contamination induced changes of antibiotic resistance in agricultural soils. Env. Microbiol., 18(11):3896-3909.