Seasonal variation in the groundwater quality of Raichur Taluk, Karnataka, India

IJEP 43(10): 877-888 : Vol. 43 Issue. 10 (October 2023)

Riyaz, Swanand A. Ajgaonkar and Manjunatha S.*

Karnatak University, Department of Geology, Karnatak Science College, Dharwad – 580 001, Karnataka, India


In the present investigation, emphasis has been given to evaluating the physico-chemical characters and seasonal variations in the groundwater of Raichur taluk. Overall 59 groundwater samples were collected each during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon covering whole Raichur taluk and parameters, such as pH, EC, TDS, TH, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO32-, HCO3, Cl and SO42- were analyzed to decipher its geochemical characters and seasonal variation in space and time. From the study, it was observed that ionic concentration for both seasons was in the following order: Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+=HCO3>Cl>SO42->CO32-. Hydrochemical facies of the groundwater are of CaCl type while Gibbs plot inferred rock-water interaction. The spatial variation revealed EC and TDS were in higher concentrations in the western part of the study area. The changes in the seasonal values indicate that the geochemical characters of groundwater of Raichur taluk are influenced by lithology and seasonal variations.


Geochemical, Seasonal variation, Groundwater, Raichur, Karnataka


  1. Gaglioti, S., et al. 2019. Geochemical characterization of spring waters in the Crati river basin, Calabria (southern Italy). Geofluids. 2019: 3850148. DOI: 10.1155/2019/3850148.
  2. Karunanidhi, D., et al. 2019. Potential health risk assessment for fluoride and nitrate contamination in hard rock aquifers of Shanmuganadhi river basin, South India. Human Ecol. Risk Assess. Int. J., 25(1-2): 250-270. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2019.1568 859.
  3. Li, J., F. Li and Q. Liu. 2017. PAHs behaviour in surface water and groundwater of the Yellow river estuary: Evidence from isotopes and hydroche-mistry. Chemosphere. 178: 143–153.
  4. Sivakarun, N., et al. 2020. Factors determining the hydrogeochemical processes occurring in shallow groundwater of coastal alluvial aquifer, India. Geochem., 80(4):125623. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemer. 2020.12 5623.
  5. Matthess, G. 1982. The properties of groundwater. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.
  6. Thivya, C., et al. 2013. A study on the significance of lithology in groundwater quality of Madurai district, Tamil Nadu (India). Env. Develop. Sustain., 15: 1365–1387.
  7. Singaraja, C., et al. 2014. Hydrochemistry of groundwater from Tuticorin district, Tamil Nadu, India. Env. Geo. Chimica Acta. 1(2):172-179.
  8. Saleem, M., A. Hussain and G. Mahmood. 2016. Analysis of groundwater quality using water quality index: A case study of Greater Noida (region), Uttar Pradesh (U.P.), India. Cogent Eng., 3(1): 1237927. DOI: 10.1080/23311916.2016.1237927
  9. Gupta, S., et al. 2019. Seasonal hydrogeochemical characteristics of Gharana wetland in Jammu province, J&K, India. Env. Ecol., 37 (2): 640-647.
  10. Pillai, A.V.S., et al. 2020. Seasonal changes in groundwater quality deterioration and chemometric analysis of pollution source identification in South India. Env. Sci. Poll. Res., 27:20037–20054. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-08258-6.
  11. Asadi, E., et al. 2020. Groundwater quality assessment for sustainable drinking and irrigation. Sustain., 12:177. DOI: 10.3390/su12010177.
  12. CGWB. 2013. Groundwater information booklet of Raichur district, Karnataka state. Central Ground Water Board.
  13. Trivedy, R.K. and P.K. Goel. 1984. Chemical and biological methods for water pollution studies. Environmental Publication, Karad.
  14. APHA. 2008. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (21st edn). American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
  15. Todd, D.K. and L.W. Mays. 2004. Groundwater hydrology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  16. Hem, J.D. 1985. Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural waters (3rd edn). USGS Water Supply Paper 2254. U.S. Geological Survey. pp 117–120.
  17. Vasanthavigar, M., et al. 2010. Application of water quality for groundwater quality assessment: Thirumanimuttar sub-basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Env. Monit. Assess., 171(1–4):595–609.
  18. Kumar, K., et al. 2005. Water quality management Jagat tank, Gulbarga, India: A case study in fundamentals of limnology. Ed Aravind Kumar. APHA Publishing Corporation, New Delhi. pp 110-113.
  19. Gupta, N., et al. 2013. Assessment of physico-chemical properties of Yamuna river in Agra city. Int. J. Chem. Tech. Res., 5 (1): 528-531.
  20. Subba Rao, N. 2017. Hydrogeology: Problems with solutions. Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi.
  21. Singh, R.P. and P. Mathur. 2005. Investigation of variation in physico-chemical characterstics of a freshwater reservoir of Ajmer city of Rajasthan. Indian J. Env. Sci., 9: 57-61.
  22. Verma, P.U., A.R. Purohit and N.J. Patel. 2012. Pollution status of Chandlodia lake located in Ahmeda-bad, Gujarat. Int. J. Eng. Res. Application. 2(4): 1600-1606.
  23. Dubey, M. and N.C. Ujjania. 2013. Water quality and pollution status of Tapi river, Gujarat, India. Int. J. Pure Appl. Zool., 1(3): 261-266.
  24. Sarath Prasanth, S.V., et al. 2012. Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the coastal stretch of Alappuzha district, Kerala, India. Appl. Water Sci., 2:165–175. DOI: 10.1007/s13201-012-0042-5
  25. Karunanidhi, D., et al. 2020. Groundwater quality evolution based on geochemical modelling and aptness testing for ingestion using entropy water quality and total hazard indexes in an urban-industrial area (Tiruppur) of Southern India. Env. Sci. Poll. Res., 28(15): 18523-18538. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-10724-0.
  26. Subba Rao, N. 2020. Spatial distribution of quality of groundwater and probabilistic non-carcinogenic risk from a rural dry climatic region of South India. Env. Geochem. Health. 43(2):971-993. DOI: 10.100 7/s10653-020-00621-3.
  27. Flood, D. 1996. Irrigation water quality for BC greenhouses. Floriculture fact sheet. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, British Columbia, Canada.
  28. Balathandayutham, K., T. Mayilswami and D. Tamilmani. 2015. Assessment of groundwater quality using GIS: a case study of Walayar watershed, Parambikulam Aliyar Palar basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Current World Env. Int. Res. J. Env. Sci., 10: 602– 609.
  29. Karakus, C.B. and S. Yildiz. 2019. Evaluation for irrigation water purposes of groundwater quality in the vicinity of Sivas city centre (Turkey) by using Gis and an irrigation water quality index. Irrigation Drainage. 69(1):121-137.
  30. Stumm, W. and J.J. Morgan. 1996. Aquatic chemistry, chemical equilibria and rates in natural waters (3rd edn). John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
  31. Singaraja, C. 2017. Relevance of water quality index for groundwater quality evaluation: Thoothukudi district, Tamil Nadu, India. Appl. Water Sci., 7: 2157-2173.
  32. Karanth, K.R. 1987. Groundwater assessment, development and management. Tata McGraw Hill publishing Company Limited, New Delhi.
  33. Piper, A.M. 1944. A graphical interpretation of water analysis. Trans. American Geophys. Union. 25: 914–928.
  34. Gibbs, R.J. 1970. Mechanisms controlling world water chemistry. Sci., 170(3962):1088–1090.