Assessment of Air Quality for Kota Metropolis, Rajasthan, India

IJEP 43(2): 147-161 : Vol. 43 Issue. 2 (February 2023)

Kuldeep Kamboj and Anil K. Mathur*

Rajasthan Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, Kota, Rajasthan – 324 010, India


Assessment of air quality has been carried out in this study for Kota metropolis, Rajasthan (India), to increase the understanding regarding pollutant sources, emission characteristics, topography and meteorological conditions that contribute to local air quality. Air quality index (AQI) and exceedance factor (EF) were also calculated to determine the pollution category and critical level of pollutants. This study was carried out for four criteria pollutants, namely PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 for the observation of 4 years. The study reveals that particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) is the primary cause of air pollution. The concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 were more than 60 and 40 µg/m3, clearly violating the Indian national ambient air quality standards prescribed by CPCB. SO2 and NO2 are well below the prescribed limits. Meteorological conditions, such as temperature and rainfall significantly impact the air quality of the Kota metropolis. The maximum concentration of pollutants was observed in winter, followed by summer and rainy seasons. AQI varies from satisfactory to very poor category. EF was more than 1 for all monitoring stations for PM10 and PM2.5 exhibiting high pollution (H), 0.5-0.9 indicating moderate pollution (M) for NO2, while less than 0.5 for SO2 shows low pollution (L).


PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, National ambient air quality standards, Air quality index, Exceedance factor


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