Indian Energy Scenario: A Critical Review

IJEP 43(2): 99-107 : Vol. 43 Issue. 2 (February 2023)

Hari Krishnan Govindarajan1, L.S. Ganesh1, Neeraj Sharma2* and Rajat Agarwal3

1. Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Department of Management Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu – 600 036, India
2. Graphic Era (Deemed to be University), Department of Management Studies, Dehradun, Uttarakhand – 248 002, India
3. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Department of Management Studies, Roorkee, Uttarakhand – 247 667, India


Access to affordable, reliable and sustainable clean energy is vital to economic growth, environmental sustainability and ending extreme poverty in a country. Climate change also presents enormous challenges and opportunities for development, making it essential that energy and climate challenges be tackled in an integrated way. Cleaner energy has become essential for humanity now. The issue of clean energy in India requires to be studied through holistic review and analysis of current energy scenario including energy policies considering India’s vast coal resources and renewable energy potential. This exploratory study draws upon comprehensive review of volumes of documents published by Government of India, Central Statistics Office, Central Electricity Authority and others. Based on the data from reputed and reliable sources, a synthesis of the Indian energy scenario is done. A careful analysis of several availability, production and consumption data of energy sources extends key insights on the drivers and some of the best practices followed. The analysis shows that India is still a fossil fuel driven economy while the efforts of policymakers for increasing renewable energy have only started to show green shoots. Some of the key drivers and best practices towards achieving the same emerge from the comprehensive review. Electric grid infrastructure, automation, availability and location of energy resources, changing social behaviour, economic prosperity, balancing of load and supply and the like are important issues to consider. The thrust for decentralised generation could prove to be a game changer for India.


Energy, clean energy, climate change, sustainability, India


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