Quantitative Elimination of Cadmium Metal from Contaminated Waters by Albizia lebbeck as Bio-adsorbent

IJEP 43(3): 210-218 : Vol. 43 Issue. 3 (March 2023)

Sambit Kumar Behera1, M.R. Mahananda1*, Bidut Prava Mohanty2 and Samikshya Mishra1

1. Sambalpur University, Department of Environmental Sciences, Sambalpur, Odisha – 768 019, India
2. Panchayat College, Department of Zoology, Bargarh, Odisha – 768 028, India


The removal of toxic metals, like cadmium (Cd) from wastewater in a convenient way is through low-cost bio-adsorbents. In this work, seeds of Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris) were applied for the adsorptive removal of Cd metals from an aqueous solution as a low-cost adsorbent. Researchers performed a batch experiment to observe the impact of pH, temperature, initial metal ion concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time and mixing speed on the bio-adsorption of cadmium (Cd) by Albizia lebbeck (seed). Both the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were well suited to the experimental data to determine the adsorption efficiency of organic and inorganic compounds on a wide variety of adsorbents at equilibrium. The heavy metal analysis was characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), that is amount of removed material by adsorbents through several batch experiments. The adsorbed amount was evaluated by the difference between initial concentrations and final concentrations of metal ion solution (mg/L). The removal efficiency of Cd metal was strongly dependent on its initial concentration, contact time, pH and temperature of adsorbents. The result showed that the sorption capacity increased with the initial adsorbate concentration, which was pH-dependent. The rate of metal-binding with biomass was predominant during the initial stages, which gradually decreased and remained almost constant after equilibrium time. Adsorbent got involved in metal complexation at active adsorption sites as early as the adsorbent was introduced into the system.


Biosorption, adsorption, Langmuir isotherm, Freundlich isotherms, batch experiment, toxicity


  1. Grassi, M., et al. 2012. Removal of emerging contaminants from water and wastewater by adsorption process. In emerging compounds removal from wastewater : Natural and solar based treatments. Ed Giusy Lofrano. Springer briefs in molecular science : Green chemistry for sustainability. pp 15-37.
  2. Nurnabi, M., S. Bhowmik and S. Rahman. 2020. Modification and application of Albizia lebbeck sawdust for the sorption of lead (II) and copper (II) from aqueous solutions. Oriental J. Chem., 36(4): 591-600.
  3. Torab-Mostaedi, M., et al. 2010. Removal of cadmium and nickel from aqueous solution using expanded perlite. Brazilian. J. Chem. Eng.,27: 299–308.
  4. Ahmaruzzaman, M. 2011. Industrial wastes as low-cost potential adsorbents for wastewater treatment laden with heavy metals.Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., 116:36–59. 
  5. Prabha, R.T. and T.H. Udayashankara. 2014. Removal of heavy metal from synthetic wastewater using rice husk and groundnut shell as adsorbents. IOSR J. Env. Sci. Toxicol. Food Tech., 8(7):26-34.
  6. Lata, S. and S.R. Sammadder. 2014. Removal of heavy metals using rice husk. Int. J. Env. Res. Develop., 4(2):165-170.
  7. Shrestha, B., et al. 2013. Surface modification of the biowaste for purification of wastewater contaminated with toxic heavy metals- lead and cadmium. Adv. Chem. Eng. Sci., 3:178-184.
  8. Annadurai, G., R.S. Juang and D.J. Lee. 2002. Adsorption of heavy metals from wastewater using banana and orange peels. Water Sci. Tech., 47 (1): 185-190.
  9. Banupriya, R., et al. 2017. Removal of heavy metals by surface assimilative. Int. J. Adv. Res., 5(3): 618-624.
  10. Ju, O. and E. Ibe. 2014. Adsorption studies of heavy metals by low-cost adsorbents. J. Appl. Sci. Env. Manage., 18(3):443-448.
  11. Etorki, A.M., et al. 2014. Removal of some heavy metals from wastewater by using fava beans. American J. Anal. Chem., 5:225-234.
  12. Brahmaiah, T., et al. 2015. Kinetics of heavy metal (Cr and Ni) removal from wastewater using low-cost adsorbent. World J. Pharmacy Pharma. Sci., 4(11):1600-1610. 
  13. Ushakumari, E.R. 2013. Wastewater treatment using low-cost natural adsorbents. Ph.D. Thesis. Cochin University of Science and Technology, India.
  14. Renge, V.C. 2012. Removal of heavy metals from wastewater using low-cost adsorbents. Sci. Reviews Chem. Commun., 2(4):580-584.
  15. Sharma, P.K., S. Ayub and C.N. Tripathi. 2013. Agro horticultural waste as low-cost adsorbents for removing heavy metals from wastewater. Int. Referred J. Eng. Sci., 2(8):18-27.
  16. Singh, L., J.G. Varshney and T. Agrawal. 2016. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation and occurrence in processed food. Food Chem., 199:768-781.
  17. Ahamed, A.J. and V. Balakrishnan. 2010. Studies on the adsorption of ferrous ions from aqueous solution by low-cost carbon. J. Chem. Pharma. Res., 2(3):733-745.
  18. Ahamed, K.R., T. Chandrasekaran and A.A. Kumar. 2013. Characterization of activated carbon prepared from Albizia lebbeck by physical activation. Int. J. Interdisciplinary Res. Innovations.1(1):26-31.
  19. Gaikwad, R. 2004. Removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution by activated charcoal derived from coconut shell. E. J. Env. Agric. Food Chem., 3(4): 702-709.
  20. Raju, C. A. I., et al. 2012. Biosorption performance of Albizia lebbeck pods powder for the removal of lead: Application of statistical method. Int. J. Modern Eng. Res., 2(3):1297-1305.
  21. Talukdar, S. and H. P. Sarma. 2021. Biosorption of Methylene Blue dye from water on leaf biomass of Neolamarckia cadamba (kadam). Appl. Ecol. Env. Sci., 9(8):715-718. 
  22. Krowiak, A.W., R.G. Szafran and S. Modlski. 2011. Biosorption of heavy metals from aqueous solutions onto peanut shell as a low-cost bios-orbent. Desalination, 265(1-3):126-134.
  23. Abas, S.N.A., et al.. 2013. Adsorption process of heavy metals by low-cost adsorbent: A review. World Appl. Sci. J., 28 (11):1518-1530.
  24. Langmuir, I. 1918. The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. J. American Chem. Soc., 40(9):1361-1403.
  25. Freundlich, H.M.F. 1906. Over the adsorption in solution. J. Physical Chem., 57:385-471. 
  26. Azouaou, N., et al. 2010. The absorption of cadmium from aqueous solution onto untreated coffee grounds: Equilibrium, kinetics and thermo-dynamics. J. Hazard. Mater., 184:126-134.
  27. Mausumi, M., S.B. Noronha and G.K. Suraishkumar. 2007. Kinetic modelling for the biosorption of copper by pretreated Aspergillus niger biomass. Bioresour. Tech., 98:1781-1787.
  28. Mohammad, M.M.R., et al. 2011. Kinetics and equilibrium studies on biosorption of cadmium, lead and nickel ions from aqueous solutions by intact and chemically modified brown algae. J. Hazard. Mater., 185:401-407.
  29. Senthil Kumar, P., et al. 2011. Removal of copper (II) ions from aqueous solution by adsorption using cashew nutshell. Desalination. 266(1-31):63-71.
  30. El-Said, A.G. and A.M. Gamal. 2012. Potential application of orange peel as an eco-friendly adsorbent for textile dyeing effluents. J. Textile Apparel Tech. Manage., 7(3):1-13.
  31. Maria, M., et al. 2006. Removal of lead (II) and cadmium (II) from aqueous solutions using grape stalk waste. J. Hazard. Mater., 133:203-211.