Evaluation of Ionic Composition and Hydrogeochemical Processes of the Groundwater in Muzaffarpur District (Bihar), India

IJEP 43(3): 263-269 : Vol. 43 Issue. 3 (March 2023)

Mohammed Aasif Sulaiman, Mohammad Masroor Zafar, Divya, Ravi Prabhakar and Anupma Kumari*

Patna University, Department of Zoology, Patna, Bihar – 800 005, India


The study focuses on identifying the hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in Muzaffarpur district, Bihar. Thirteen physico-chemical parameters were subjected to evaluate the water quality and geochemical processes of the study area. The analytical results revealed a slightly alkaline nature of groundwater falling predominately under the hard water category. Relative ionic concentration follows a trend of Ca2+>Mg2+>Na+>K+ for cations and HCO3>NO3>Cl>SO42->F for anions. The hydrogeochemical information of the groundwater system has been deduced from different graphical plots including Piper diagram, Durov diagram, Scholler diagram, Gibbs diagram and ion scatter plots. The results indicate that weathering of carbonate from dolomite and calcite alongwith the reverse ion exchange process plays an important role in contributing to the Ca2+ and Mg2+ of the ionic budget. Gibbs diagram suggests rock-weathering interaction as the dominant process controlling ionic chemistry of the study area. Piper plot classifies groundwater as Ca-Mg-HCO3 type. Altogether, the groundwater of the study area is chiefly governed by the geological process with anthropogenic factors playing their part as well.


Hydrogeochemistry, groundwater, Muzaffarpur, Durov, Gibbs


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