Linear Correlation Study and Regression Analysis of Surface Water in foothills of Shivalik Range, India

IJEP 43(6): 538-546 : Vol. 43 Issue. 6 (June 2023)

Vandana Sethi and Yogesh Kumar Walia*

Career Point University, Department of Chemistry, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh – 176 041, India


This study statistically analyzes the deteriorating water standards of the riverine system in Baddi town of Himachal Pradesh, situated in foothills of Shivalik range. In this paper, statistical techniques, such as correlation studies and regression analysis were applied to 14 water quality parameters at 12 different sampling stations on the surface water of the study area. The statistical analysis was carried out from February 2021 to June 2021. This technique is based on studying and calculating the correlation coefficients and producing the linear regression equation for different sets of water parameters. In the spring season, correlation matrix gives 105 combinations out of which, 11 correlation coefficients (r) between the EC-F, EC-NO3, EC-Na+, TH-Ca2+, TDS-F, TDS-NO3 , TDS-Na+, Na+-Cl, F-NO3, Na+-F and Na+-NO3 were observed with highly significant levels (0.9<r<1.0). In the summer season, out of 105 correlation combinations, 8 correlation coefficients (r) between the EC-TDS, EC-NO3, EC-Ca2+, EC-Na+, TDS-Ca2+, TDS-NO3, TDS-Na+ and Na+-Cl were observed with highly significant levels (0.9<r<1.0). The result obtained from analysis were further compared with drinking water quality standards issued by World Health Organization and it was deduced that some of the water sampling stations are not within the permissible limit and the different water parameters are more or less correlated with each other [1]. The results proved to be a useful means for rapid evaluation of water quality in systematic and statistical way.


Water pollution, Baddi, Riverine, Industrialization, Physico-chemical parameters, Correlation, Regression, Statistical tool


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