IJEP 43(9): 771-782 : Vol. 43 Issue. 9 (September 2023)
1. Can Tho University, College of Environment and Natural Resources, Can Tho 900000, Vietnam
2. Can Tho University, School of Law, Can Tho 900000, Vietnam
The study was conducted with the aim of assessing the spatial and temporal variation of air quality in Ben Tre province, Vietnam. The statistical methods of cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were utilized to analyze the dataset of five air quality parameters, including total suspended particulates (TSP), carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrous oxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) at 27 stations in four monitoring periods in 2021. The results of CA showed that the air quality highly fluctuated according to space and time. All air quality parameters were below the allowable thresholds of QCVN 05:2013/BTNMT. However, TSP at three positions was higher than the allowable limit by 1.07-1.58 times. DA showed that CO, TSP and NO2; NO2, CO and SO2 were the best discriminating air quality variables in space and time, respectively. PCA showed four PCs that could explain 70.80%, 69.90%, 55.70% and 71.60% of the total variance of the air quality in study area. Industrial activities, sintering coal production, transportation and waste treatment are the potential sources of air quality variations.
Pollutants, Air quality, Cluster analysis, Principal component analysis, Ben Tre province
- Ben Tre Provincial Statistics Office. 2021. Report on the socio-economic situation of Ben Tre province in the fourth quarter and 2021.
- Thanh, B. 2021. Ben Tre: Improving emission management. Available at : CEM | Ben Tre: Improving emission management.
- Mutalib, S. N. S. A., et al. 2013. Spatial and temporal air quality pattern recognition using environmetric techniques: A case study in Malaysia. Env. Sci. Processes Impacts. 15:1717.
- Kampa, M. and E. Castanas. 2007. Human health effects of air pollution. Env. Poll., 151:362-367.
- Mills, N. L., et al. 2008. Adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Nature Clinical Practice.
- Genc, S., et al. 2012. The adverse effects of air pollution on the nervous system. J. Toxicol.
- Hamanaka, R. B. and G. M. Mutlu. 2018. Particulate matter air pollution: Effects on the cardiovascular system. Frontiers Endocrinol.
- Sharma, S. B., et al. 2013. The effects of air pollution on the environment and human health. Indian J. Res. Pharmacy Biotech., 1(3):391-396.
- Bozkurt, Z., et al. 2018. Atmospheric concentrations of SO2, NO2, ozone and VOCs in Duzce, Turkey using passive air samplers: Sources, spatial and seasonal variations and health risk estimation. Atmos. Poll. Res., 9: 1146-1156.
- Filonchyk, M. and H. Yan. 2018. The characteristics of air pollutants during different seasons in the urban area of Lanzhou, northwest China. Env. Earth Sci.
- Rezaei, S., et al. 2016. Investigation of the levels of air criteria pollutants effecting on health in Dogonbadan city and description of air quality using aqi index. Acta Medica Mediterranea. 32:1449.
- Trang, D. T. H. and D.H. Tuan. 2022. Assessment of air quality in Ha Long city, Quang Ninh province in the period 2016-2019. J. Meteorol. Hydrol., 736 (1):1-13.
- Al-Jubouri, R. M. K., A. M. A. Al-Ghurabi and R. J. Al-Hamzawi. 2022. Air quality index (AQI) within Al-Qassim city. J. Positive School Psychol., 6(3):8285-8300.
- Lau, J., W. T. Hung and C. S. Cheung. 2009. Interpretation of air quality in relation to monitoring station’s surroundings. Atmos. Env., 43:769-777.
- Giao, N. T. 2021. Assessing air quality in Industrial, urban and transport areas in Long Xuyen city, an Giang province, Vietnam. J. Sci. Tech. Res., 3(1):177-187.
- Long, B. T. and N. C. M. Duyen. 2019. Modelling air pollution in complex topographical conditions – point source case. J. Meteorol Hydrol., 4:34-45.
- Department of Natural Resources and Environment of Ben Tre Province. 2021. Report on environmental monitoring results in Ben Tre province.
- QCVN 05:2013/BTNMT. 2013. National technical regulation on ambient air quality. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam.
- Dominick, D., et al. 2012. Spatial assessment of air quality patterns in Malaysia using multivariate analysis. Atmos. Env., 60: 172-181.
- Pires, J.C.M., et al. 2008a. Management of air quality monitoring using principal component and cluster. Analysis e part I: SO2and PM10. Atmos. Env., 42:1249e1260.
- Isiyaka, H. A. and A. Azid. 2015. Air quality pattern assessment in Malaysia using multivariate techniques. Malaysian J. Anal. Sci., 19(5):966-978.
- Jassim, M. S., et al. 2018. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of air pollution in Bahrain using multivariate analysis methods. Env. Asia.11(2):9-22.
- Liu, C. W., K. H. Lin and Y. M. Kuo. 2003. Application of factor analysis in the assessment of groundwater quality in a blackfoot disease area in Taiwan. Sci. total Env., 313(1):77-89.
- Budihardjo, M. A., K. Noveandra and B. P. Samadikun. 2018. Characteristic of total suspended particulate (TSP) containing Pb and Zn at solid waste landfill. J. Physics: Conf. Series. 1022:12030.
- Giao, N. T. 2021. Evaluating air quality in Hau Giang province, Vietnam using multivariate statistical analysis. J. Sci. Tech. Res., 3(3):11-21.
- Bayraktar, H., F. S. Turalioglu and G. Tuncel. 2008. Average mass concentrations of TSP, PM10and PM2.5 in Erzurum urban atmosphere, Turkey. Stoch. Env. Res. Risk Assess.
- Ramadan, A. A., H., Mandil and M. H. Ismail. 2010. Elemental analysis of TSP and PM10in the ambient air of Aleppo city, Syria. Asian J. Chem., 22(4):3159-3168.
- Inerb, M., et al. 2022. Carbon and trace element compositions of total suspended particles (TSP) and nanoparticles (PM0,1) in ambient air of southern Thailand and characterization of their sources. Atmos., 13: 626.
- Alias, M., Z. Hamzah and L. S. Kenn. 2007. PM10and total suspended particulates (TSP) measurements in various power stations. The Malaysian J. Anal., Sci: 11(1): 255-261.
- Nhu, L. T. T., et al. 2019. Assessment of the risk of air pollution and public health of coal pit kilns in Chau Thanh district, Hau Giang province. Sci. J., Can Tho University. 55(2A):44-51.
- Al-Anzi, B., A. Abusam and A. Khan. 2016. Evaluation of temporal variations in ambient air quality at Jahra using multivariate techniques. Env. Tech. Innovation.
- John, K. S. and K. Feyisayo. 2013. Air pollution by carbon monoxide (CO) poisonous gas in Lagos area southwestern Nigeria. Atmos. Climate Sci., 3(4).
- Liu, C., et al. 2018. Ambient carbon monoxide and cardiovascular mortality: a nationwide time-series analysis in 272 cities in China. The Lancet Planetary Health. 2(1): e12-e18.
- Prockop, L. D. and R.I. Chichkova. 2007. Carbon monoxide intoxication: An updated review. J. Neurol. Sci., 262:122-130.
- Hung, H. V., D. V. Hai and D. T. N. Linh. 2020. Applying GIS technology to build a map of air quality in the area of Lao Cai city, Lao Cai province. J. Sci. Tech., Thai Nguyen University. 225(16):71-77.
- Giao, N. T. 2021. Assessment of air quality in Can Tho city, Vietnam using cluster analysis. Indonesian J. Env. Manage. Sustainability. 5:154-161.
- Civan, M. Y., et al. 2015. Spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric VOCs, NO2, SO2and O3concentrations at a heavily industrialized region in Western Turkey and assessment of the carcinogenic risk levels of benzene. Atmos. Env., 103:102-113.
- Ghazi, I. E. 2022. Exposure to air pollution from road traffic and incidence of respiratory diseases in the city of Meknes, Morocco. Poll., 2:306-327.
- Dung, P. T. 2008. Lecture on air pollution control.
- Jaffe, D. A., et al. 2018. Scientific assessment of background ozone over the U.S.: Implications for air quality management. Elementa Sci. Anthropo-cene. 6:56.
- Meraz, M., et al. 2015. Statistical persistence of air pollutants (O3, SO2, NO2and PM10) in Mexico City. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics Applications. 427:202-217.
- Zhou, K., et al. 2007. Evaluation of ambient air quality in Guangzhou, China. J. Env. Sci., 19:432-437.
- Li, J., et al. 2014. Fast increasing of surface ozone concentrations in Pearl River Delta characterized by a regional air quality monitoring network during 2006–2011. J. Env. Sci., 26: 23-36.
- Department of Environment Malaysia (DOE). 2010. Malaysia environmental quality report. Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, Kuala Lumpur.
- Sadanaga, Y., et al. 2012. Analyses of the ozone weekend effect in Tokyo, Japan: regime of oxidant (O3+ NO2) production. Aerosol Air Qual. Res., 12:161-168.