Experimental study on emission, performance and combustion characteristics of ZnO additive diesel fuel with water injection in direct injection diesel engine

IJEP 44(2): 129-136 : Vol. 44 Issue. 2 (February 2024)

Rajmohan Nagarajan1 and Arockia Julias2*

1. B. S. Abdur Rahman Crescent Institute of Science Technology, Department of Automobile Engineering, Chennai – 600 048, Tamil Nadu, India
2. B. S. Abdur Rahman Crescent Institute of Science Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chennai – 600 048, Tamil Nadu, India


This experimental work investigates the performance, combustion and emissions characteristics of water injection and ZnO nanoparticle addition with diesel fuel in a constant speed diesel engine. The first phase experiment was conducted by water injection (WI) at inlet manifold with water-diesel ratio (WDR) of 0.2:1, 0.3:1 and 0.4:1. The results were compared with neat diesel fuel. It was found that WDR-0.2:1 simultaneously controls the nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke emissions. Its brake thermal efficiency (BTE) value at full load condition was nearer to diesel fuel. The second phase study was conducted by adding 50 ppm and 100 ppm of ZnO nanoparticle with diesel for WDR-0.2:1. It shows that additive diesel fuel with water injection has good control over carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke emissions.


ZnO nanoparticle, Water injection, CO, NOx, Brake thermal efficiency, Smoke emission


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