Terms and Characteristics of Oil Transportation Ways and Smuggling

IJEP 44(5): 418-427 : Vol. 44 Issue. 5 (May 2024)

Zainab Al-Khafaji1,2*, Safa Hussien3 and Abdul Hadi Meteab Al-Saadi3

1. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Enviroment, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
2. Al-Ayen University, Scientific Research Center, Thi-Qar, Iraq
3. Al-Mustaqbal University, Building and Construction Techniques Engineering Department, 51001 Hillah, Babil, Iraq


The life cycle of the oil and gas transmission line consists of several critical stages: design, construction or installation, operation and maintenance and finally, repair. During the planning phase and before undertaking any work to build a new pipeline, there are several factors affecting the design process that must be taken into consideration: impact on the environment, approval and legislative considerations. The transportation process is one of the main stages of oil industry and oil transportation negatively impacts the environment. The Gulf countries were affected by transporting oil due to their heavy dependence on it, which required them to deal with damage with the latest tools. The impact of oil pollution not only on the environment but also economically. The negative effect of transporting oil to the environment, whether it is surface or groundwater or soil, does not mean abandoning oil, but rather confronting damage with all modern means. The current study spot the light on oil transportation ways and issues alongwith solutions that could be detected to reduce such issues. The combination of the need for energy for transportation of tanker, economies of scale, commitment, determination of water balance levels and periodic follow-up of pipeline to avoid leaks and spills and to ensure the continuity of development of oil industry.


Oil transportation, Smuggling, Pipeline, Cleaning method, Environmental impact


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