IJEP 40 (10) : 1009-1023 (2020)

Assessment Of Neighbourhood Environmental Quality Using Analytical Hierarchy Process With GIS In Azamgarh City

Saleha Jamal and Uzma Ajmal


Environmental quality of the neighbourhood has a significant influence on the lives of the residents. People’s health is overwhelmingly affected by the quality of their neighbourhood environment. In those areas where environmental quality deteriorates, that is proper supply of water, adequate drainage system, sewers, facilities, like garbage collection and electricity are lacking, air and water quality has worsened, people are more susceptible to health damages. Examining the quality of the neighbourhood environment can play a vital role in its improvement and comprehensive planning at the local level. It can be instrumental in aiding government officials and others to determine what needs to be done and where. In this study, an effort was made to assess the quality of the neighbourhood environment in Azamgarh city using analytical hierarchy process in the GIS environment. Analytical hierarchy process technique was used to assign weights to different criteria based on their significance. Factors that have been selected for analysis were built-up area, open green spaces, tree cover, household density, air pollution, noise pollution, solid waste management and wastewater management. It was found that obtained weights of the criteria were in the range of >0.1 of consistency ratio and regarded as reasonable for decision making. Weighted linear combination technique was used to generate the final suitability map. This technique involved a combination of the factors after assigning weights to each and yielded final neighbourhood environmental quality map. The study found that the most influential factor deteriorating environmental quality are wastewater management, solid waste management, air and noise pollution. Environmental quality is worst in low income neighbourhoods, mostly inhabited by poor population, consequently making them more susceptible to worsening health. In such environmentally degraded neighbourhoods, there is a necessity of better urban management which can be achieved by local and focused plans rather than state and national plans. Public participation, as well as special planning, focused on vulnerable neighbourhoods is prerequisite for tackling these problems.


Neighbourhood, Environmental quality, Analytical hierarchy process, Geographical information system, Weighted linear combination

IJEP 40 (10) : 1024-1032 (2020) 

Adsorption Of Pb2+ And Cr2+ Ions From Aqueous Solution Using Synthetic Goethite Material: A Batch Adsorption Study

Heba S. Ali, Nabil F. El Sayed Kandil, Mohammed M. Elkholy and Ibraheem B.M. Ibraheem


This work aims to investigate the efficiency of synthetic goethite prepared in the lab as an adsorbent for Pb2+ and Cr3+ metal ions from aqueous solution as a function of contact time, sorbate concentration, pH and adsorbent dose at room temperature. In this study, goethite (a-FeOOH) has been prepared by precipitation method and the basic characterizations by SEM (scanning electron microscope), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectrum) and XRD (X-ray diffraction) have been evaluated. Maximum equilibrium capacities were calculated using adsorption isotherm models. The process of adsorption was highly influenced by pH that the removal efficiency of Pb2+ and Cr3+ has been increased with pH values. Results revealed that maximum adsorption efficiency of Pb2+ and Cr3+ ions was 96.49% and 65.84 %, respectively. Results revealed that maximum adsorption efficiency of Pb2+ and Cr3+ ions was 96.49% and 65.84 %, respectively. Maximum equilibrium capacities Qmax were obtained as 33.28 mg/g for Pb2+ and 25.13 mg/g for Cr3+. The results obtained confirmed that the synthetic goethite adsorbent has practical feasibility for removing Pb2+ and Cr3+ pollutants from aqueous solution.


Adsorption, Cr3+ and Pb2+ ions, Synthesized goethite

IJEP 40 (10) : 1033-1043 (2020)

Assessment Of Groundwater Quality And Its Hydrochemical Studies In Hard Rock Terrains Of Pavagada Taluk, Tumkur District Of Karnataka For Drinking And Agricultural Uses

Nandeesha, Vishal R. Khandagale and T. S. Umesha 


Degradation of the groundwater quality because of its excessive usage and less available surface water is greater than ever from past decades particularly in the hard rock terrains and semi-arid regions of the Pavagada taluk, Tumkur district, India. The chances of hydrogeochemical contamination have become very high in such regions, therefore, Pavagada taluk is selected to know the appropriateness of subsurface water for drinking and agricultural purposes. Samples of groundwater from 102 locations in Pavagada taluk from pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period were collected and analyzed for pH, TDS, EC, chloride, total hardness, bicarbonate, carbonate, sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, nitrate, fluoride and sulphate. When the obtained results of collected samples were compared with BIS drinking water standards, some of the parameters in the Pavagada taluk were above the permissible limit [1]. The order of cations and anions concentration among the analyzed parameters for both seasons in Pavagada taluk were Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and SO42- > Cl > HCO3 > NO3 > F.  To ascertain the aptness of water quality for agricultural activities, some of the indicators, like SAR, SSP, magnesium adsorption ratio, RSC and Kelly’s ratio were adopted. As per SAR, SSP and RSC, 80% of samples in the area of investigation are appropriate for agricultural usage. As per US Salinity diagram, more than 50% of groundwater samples resided in C3-S1 type indicating a higher concentration of salinity and low SAR value. In the Piper diagram, NaCl and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl type facies were most dominant and the influence of rock-water interaction on water quality was revealed in Gibbs diagram.


Groundwater, Hydrogeochemical, Pavagada taluk, Gibbs diagram

IJEP 40 (10) : 1044-1050 (2020)

Effect Of Montreal Protocol In The Recovery Of Atmospheric Ozone Over The Indian Subcontinent

T. M. Anu and K. Elampari


This paper presents the effect of the Montreal Protocol in the recovery of ozone over India after its implementation. The total column ozone (TCO) data for India was obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)’s Merged Ozone Dataset (MOD) for a period of 33 years from 1983-2015. Statistical tools, such as the Mann-Kendall (MK) trend test and Sen’s slope estimator tests were used to find the nature of trend variation before and after the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. The result of the analysis reveals that there is a significant increase in the level of higher level atmospheric ozone over India, after the implementation of the Montreal Protocol.


Total column ozone, Montreal protocol, Mann-Kendall test, Sen’s slope test, Ozone trend

IJEP 40 (10) : 1051-1057 (2020)

Biosorption Of Textile Dye Using Sargassum wightii

K. Thrishla Kumar, B. Harini, G. Maalavika, G. Bhargavi, R. Geethalakshmi, D. Vigneshpriya and S. Renganathan


Removal of an acidic dye (Acid Red) from its aqueous solutions was assayed by employing the biosorbent derived from Sargassum wightii in a batch system. The influence of adsorption parameters, like pH (2-10), adsorbent dosage (0.2-1 g/L) and initial dye concentration (30-110 mg/L) on the adsorption process was evaluated. It was observed that, with an increase in adsorbent dosage, uptake capacity decreased, possibly due to lower mass transfer rates of dye on to adsorbent. However, initial dye concentration showed a linear relationship with the adsorption process. The maximum dye uptake capacity of the biomass was observed at an adsorbent dosage of 0.4 g/L, pH of 4 and an initial concentration of dye at 110 mg/L. Adsorption isotherm studies were conducted using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models in which the data collected from the biosorption of acid red dye using Sargassum wightii was found to fit the Freundlich model best with a regression factor of 0.976. This suggests that the adsorption mechanism is multilayer at equilibrium. Germination studies using green gram, sorghum and radish were carried out to test the suitability of Sargassum wightii treated Acid Red dye solutions for irrigation purposes. 


Biosorption, Adsorption isotherms, Germination studies, Acid Red dye, Sargassum wightii

IJEP 40 (10) : 1058-1063 (2020)

A Study On The Leaching Properties Of Cement Block Selected As A Matrix for Fixation Of Radioactive Sr90 Included With Ba3(PO4)2 Slurry

Ajay Kumar Mishra, B. S. Panigrahi, S. K. Khandelwal1 and Biplob Paul


The effluent generated by the decontamination of the nuclear steam generator of secondary coolant side line involves removal of the deposits by using a complexing agent. The resulting waste contains the radioactive ions in complex state and hence can’t be treated further unless freed from the complexant. The oxidation of the complexant using chemical and photochemical technique releases free ions suitable for treatment by chemical precipitation. The slurry containing the activity obtained by diluting the sludge created from the chemical precipitation process with water has been immobilized using matrices, like cement, bitumen, glass, etc. Leaching behaviour of the cement matrix included with strontium activity was found to be better at high pH of the slurry included in the matrix. The diffusion coefficient of Sr90 from the cement matrix was found to be in the range of 4.5×10-4 cm2/day to 5.98×10-5 cm2/day with pH of slurry in the range of 2-10. When bentonite and vermiculite were included in the cement matrix with the pH of slurry in the range of 2-10, the diffusion coefficient of Sr90 was found to be reduced in the range of 1.93×10-4 cm2/day to 8.2×10-6 cm2/day.


Diffusion, Vermiculite, Bentonite, Leaching, Leach index, Leach rate

IJEP 40 (10) : 1064-1072 (2020)

Unusual Photocatalytic Degradation Efficiency Of CdS/NiTiO3/TiO2 Ternary Composites: Structural Designing, Spectral Characterization And Photocatalytic Degradation Study 

Seerangan Vadivel, Jaganathan Dharmaraja, Santhanam Sivakumar,  Vairamuthu Raj and Nangagoundan Vinoth


Anatase (TiO2) is a predominant photocatalyst, it received attractive considerable attention on the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater. However, the main drawback of the relatively minimum photocatalytic efficiency, the high recombination rate of photoexcited electron-hole pairs and low utilization of visible light, resist its efficiency gradient at the composite boundary. This work reports, binary composite NiTiO3/TiO2 first prepared through dispersion method. After CdS/NiTiO3/TiO2 ternary composites to build by the binary composites decorated with CdS nanomaterial. The modified ternary systems characterized by X-ray diffraction, for a study about crystalline phase; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for surface morphology; UV diffused reflectance spectroscopy for the optical properties and photoluminescence spectra used to know the behaviour of photoexcitation of CdS/NiTiO3/TiO2 ternary composites. The CdS/NiTiO3/TiO2 ternary composites show superior degradation efficiency compared with CdS/TiO2 and NiTiO3/TiO2 binary composites due to its better natural solar absorption and higher electron-hole charge separation. This composite has a greater potential on visible light driven photocatalytic activity for degrading organic dyes in wastewater effluents.  


CdS/NiTiO3/TiO2, Reactive Black 5, Photocatalytic efficiency, Natural sunlight

IJEP 40 (10) : 1073-1076 (2020)

Impact Of Mining Activities On Surface Water And Groundwater Of Naal Area, Bikaner

Leela Kaur, Akshansh Srivastava and Prem Godara


The present study is based on the analysis of surface water and groundwater in a mining area to find out the impact of mining activities on the water quality of Naal mining area (Bikaner, Rajasthan). Water samples from different areas of Naal were collected for the present investigation. Physico-chemical parameters of water samples were analyzed, such as colour, temperature, turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, total hardness, chloride, sodium and potassium. The results showed that groundwater samples were brackish to saline and hard in nature. The samples of Goglia pond water had concentrations of potassium and total hardness beyond permissible limits. Total hardness beyond standard limit was also found in groundwaters of Naal, Kodamdaiser and factory sites. These water characteristics might be controlled by the interaction of water with rock, geology of the area and man-made effects. Further investigation is required for the adoption of necessary water remedial methods.


Surface water, Groundwater, Mining activities, Water quality parameters, Bikaner

IJEP 40 (10) : 1077-1081 (2020)

Effect Of Action Competence Model On Ecological Intelligence Of Secondary School Students

Mary K. J.


The emergence of new technology choices and living styles witnessed during the last century has led to environmental degradation and vast imbalances in nature. Therefore, making children sensitive to the environment and the needs for its protection is an important curricular concern. The present study was designed to find out the effect of action competence model on ecological intelligence of secondary school students. Action competence model emphasizes both on thinking and doing. It connects to action and cognitive capability to achieve better outcomes for the environment and sustainability. Quasi experimental method was selected for the study. Pre-test post-test non-equivalent group design was adopted. The sample size selected for the study was 280 secondary school students from six schools of Kottayam district. The experimental group was taught using action competence model (ACM) and for the control group, activity oriented method (AOM) was used. Duration of treatment was 30 periods of 40 min. The tool ecological intelligence test was administered before and after the treatment to both the groups. The collected data were analyzed with the help of different statistical techniques, such as independent sample t-test using the software SPSS version 23. The study proved that ACM is more effective than AOM in enhancing ecological intelligence of students at the secondary level.


Education, Sustainable development goals, Action competence model, Ecological intelligence

IJEP 40 (10) : 1082-1086 (2020)

Removal Of Fluoride From Aqueous Medium By Using Low Cost Bentonite Of Rajmahal And Hazaribagh, Jharkhand

Sourav Majumder, Ashok Kumar Jha and Pranitha


The problem of fluoride in drinking water is not only common in different parts of the world but also in the Gangetic plains on the southern bank of Ganges in Bhagalpur causing endemic fluorosis in the villages of Jagdishpur Anchal of the Bhagalpur district. Though a number of defluoridation techniques, like adsorption, ion exchange, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis are used, attempts have been made to exploit locally available bentonite minerals of Rajmahal hills and Hazaribagh in particular. Our studies have shown that locally available bentonites containing a unit of montmorillonites have the capacity to remove the fluoride from aqueous medium. On the treatment of 100 mL fluoride solution with 300 mesh sieves bentonites for different intervals of time, it has been found that bentonites are good adsorbent of fluoride. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies show that adsorption follows first order kinetics.


Bentonites, Defluoridation, Isotherm, Kinetic

IJEP 40 (10) : 1087-1091 (2020)

Phytoavailability Of Trace Metals Irrigated By Downstream Of Yamuna: To Assess Transgression Of Metals From Soil And Water 

Indu Tiwari, Neha Barkodia and Surabhi Yadav


Presence of metals in the environment leads to numerous health hazard. Excess of metal also affects the nutritive values of agricultural materials and thus exert a deleterious effect on human beings. Vegetables are an essential dietary source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, iron, calcium and other nutrients. This study was conducted to assess the accumulation of different heavy metals, like copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) to assess the potential transformation of metal in vegetables, such as spinach, radish, radish leaves, gourd, ridged gourd, tomato seeds growing in soil and river water which was used for irrigation. The content of these metals was measured by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). It was observed that maximum concentration of Cu (69.75 mg/kg), Fe (400mg/kg) and Zn (59 mg/kg) in vegetables did not elevate the safe limit recommended by FAO/WHO except manganese in spinach and radish leaves. Although iron and manganese concentration in soil and Cu, Zn, Fe in water is high. The study revealed that different plants bring out dissimilar tolerance mechanisms against different heavy metal toxicity.


Heavy metals, Leafy vegetables, AAS, Water quality

IJEP 40 (10) : 1092-1098 (2020)

A Study On Groundwater Quality In Industrial Area Of Visakhapatnam

P. Pavitra, D. Mallikarjuna Rao, L. Vaikunta Rao and Ch. Ramakrishna


Groundwater quality has a special significance for drinking, industrial and domestic water supply. The present work is aimed to identify the quality of groundwater in the industrial belt of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. In this study, groundwater samples were collected from industrial regions to analyze the characteristics of water quality by using water quality index and Piper diagram. Total twenty-two groundwater samples were collected during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season in the year of 2016, from the bore wells and subjected to standard analytical techniques to analyze physico-chemical parameters, such as pH, electrical conductivity, chloride, total alkalinity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, iron, copper, chromium, nickel and lead. These parameters have been analyzed in the laboratory. The results obtained were compared with BIS standard values [1]. The objective of this analysis was to compile as much information as possible about industrialization by various parameters in groundwater, in order to be able to have a general overview of effective degree and extension of groundwater pollution. From the heavy metal analysis, it can be inferred that high concentration of Fe2+, Cu2+ has made the groundwater unsuitable for drinking purpose. The disposal of untreated effluents from various industrial units may be the source of groundwater contamination in the area of concern.


Groundwater quality, Physico-chemical parameters, Water quality index, Piper trilinear diagram

IJEP 40 (10) : 1099-1106 (2020)

Environmental Management System in UAE: A Review

Veera Kumar Mohan, Lau Seng and Tonga Anak Noweg


In the global world, to manage the working activity as per the environmentally friendly initiative, every manufacturing industry must perform tasks to protect the environment. It is regarded as a major concern for the industrial sector. In respect to this, various manufacturing industries highly adopt the “Go Green” initiative and prefer to implement environmental management system so that they will be able to make a proper balance between their operational activity and environmental-friendly initiative. The study mainly focuses on the environmental management system in the UAE by evaluating and overcoming the challenges of its implementation among the manufacturing industries. The study identifies the need and current status of the manufacturing industries in the implementation of the environmental management system, especially in Abu Dhabi. The study also identifies and analyses the key drivers and challenges which are related to the implementation of the environmental management system. It also includes the literature which mainly focuses on awareness of environmental management system, its effectiveness and development to overcome the challenges in the implementation of the environmental management system. At last, the study also describes the finding and discussion based on the collective facts so that effective conclusion and recommendation will be provided effectively.


UAE, Environment management system, Manufacturing, EMS

IJEP 40 (10) : 1107-1114 (2020)

CO2 Emission From Transportation Activities In The Major Traffic Areas Of Erode City, Tamil Nadu

Krithiga P., M. Sathish Kumar, K. Thagan and G. Vivek Kumar 


Transportation is one sector that contributes to greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Global warming is the greatest concerned nowadays; thus, many research is estimating the carbon footprint in their cities to weigh their contribution towards temperature rising. Emission from transportation is the substantial source of carbon dioxide emissions, which contributes 14% of the total carbon footprint of the world. In the transportation sector, 80% of carbon footprint by road transportation, 13% by waterways and the remaining 6% were occupied by airways. These show the emissions from road transportation top the chart. The study estimates the carbon dioxide emission from road transportation in Erode city. The bottom approach method of life cycle analysis has been adopted for the present study. The primary traffic areas in Erode city were identified and the emissions values are carried out as per IPCC guidelines. Finally, its illuminates all the traffic areas emissions calculated individually and effective mitigation measures were suggested to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.


Global warming, Carbon footprint, Transportation sector, Life cycle assessment, Traffic areas

IJEP 40 (10) : 1115-1121 (2020)

Estimation Of Some Heavy Metal Concentration In Sediment Sample Of River Ganga At Varanasi

Pushpa Kumari, Prakriti Verma and Kriteshwar Prasad


Heavy metals are considered as critical toxic pollutants of the aquatic system due to their high potential to enter and accumulate in the food chain. In the aquatic system deposition of heavy metals and other pollutants can lead to elevated sediment concentration that causes potential toxicity of aquatic biota. The quality of sediment reflects the overall quality of sediments. The sediment analysis is often considered as a good measure to access environmental studies. The present study was an attempt to investigate the heavy metal contamination in the sediment of river Ganga at Varanasi. Sediment sample of Ganga from six sites was analyzed to estimate the presence of some selected heavy metals, such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr+6), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean order of heavy metal concentration was found to be Fe > Cr+6 > Ni > Pb > Cu > Cd > Zn. All the heavy metals concentration exceeded the detection limits when compared to the WHO and USEPA guidelines.


Heavy metal, Sediment quality, Pollution, Ganga river

IJEP 40 (10) : 1122-1126 (2020)

Comparative Study On Coagulation And Electrocoagulation For Dye Wastewater

R. Saranya and Aathira G. Krishna


The textile industry is one of the largest manufacturing industries. In textile processing, the industry uses a number of dyes, chemicals, auxiliary chemicals and sizing materials. As a result, contaminated textile wastewater can cause environmental problems, if not treated, before its disposal. The effectiveness of banana stem juice as a natural coagulant for textile wastewater treatment was investigated. In this study, the treatment of textile wastewater was done in two methods – coagulation and electrocoagulation. Three main parameters were studied, chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS) and turbidity of effluent. Conventional coagulation is performed using a jar test and electrocoagulation process is carried out using a magnetic stirrer. The effects of banana stem juice dosage on textile wastewater in coagulation process were examined at different pH levels. In electrocoagulation, the electrode combination, like Fe-Fe, Fe-Al, Al-Al and Al-Fe at a different voltage of 2.5 V, 5 V, 10 V was used to achieve the high removal capacity. This treatment process will reduce the initial cost of the treatment process and it will be highly useful for small scale industry.


Coagulation, Electrocoagulation, Banana stem, Textile wastewater