September-2020

IJEP 40 (9) : 899-909 (2020)

Ion Exchanger Doped Polymer Composite Membrane For Heavy Metal Removal From Aqueous Solutions

Charishma Ravindran, Anitha P. K. and Jitha Kunhikrishnan M.

Abstract

A novel cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol- polystyrene sulphonic acid-zirconium phosphosilicate (PVA-PSSA-ZPS) membrane was prepared by dispersing zirconium phosphosilicate gel into PVA-PSSA blend by solution casting method. It was used as an effective adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals, such as Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Hg2+ ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capacity of Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Hg2+ ions over PVA-PSSA-ZPS  membranes are 0.7221, 0.6961, 0.7035, 0.6738, 0.6812 and 0.6105, respectively. The incorporation of ZPS into PVA-PSSA blend increased the selectivity of heavy metals towards the membrane. The membrane was characterized by XRD, FTIR, TGA-DSC, SEM and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Adsorption studies were carried by batch adsorption method. Effect of pH, contact time, initial concentration, etc., on heavy metal adsorption, were studied. The extent of adsorption for various metal ions was found to be in the order of Pb2+>Cu2+>Cd2+>Ni2+>Co2+>Hg2+. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies were carried out to explain the type of adsorption process. 

Keywords

Membrane adsorption, Heavy metals, Polyvinyl alcohol, Polystyrene sulphonic acid, Zirconium phosphosilicate, Desorption

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IJEP 40 (9) : 910-920 (2020)

Multivariate Statistical Analysis Of Irrigation Water Quality (Taza Region, Morocco)

K. Arouya, H. Tabyaoui, H. Taouil1, J. Naoura and S. Ibn Ahmed

Abstract

The present work consists of establishing the correlations between the qualitative indices of the surface water of Oued Larbaa and its tributaries, to draw a typology of the aptitude of these waters for the irrigation and to identify the chemical facies. To reach these objectives, 17 qualitative water indices were processed using a combination of multivariate statistical methods. Hydrochemical methods were also developed in this study. The principal component analysis allowed us to identify the correlations between the different physico-chemical parameters and to understand the processes that may be at the origin of the mineralization. The typological structure revealed by the factorial plane F1×F2 shows the individualization of five main groupings of different sites according to their ability to irrigate. The hierarchical ascending classification (HCA) highlights five main groups of variables. This further confirms the results obtained by the PCA. The waters studied are classified as bicarbonated, chlorinated, sodium, potassium and calcium.

Keywords

Multivariate analysis, Surface water, Physico-chemical quality, Irrigation, Northern Morocco

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IJEP 40 (9) : 921-926 (2020)

Biodiesel Production From Nagpur Thermal Power Plant Ash Used As Catalyst

P. G. Bansod, Dinesh Bhutada and S. S. Barkade

Abstract

Thermal power plant ash is a waste material and creating serious problems of environmental issues, regarding disposal and storage. In the present study, Nagpur thermal power plant ash was tried to be used as a catalyst for the production of biodiesel. The heterogeneous catalyst was synthesised from thermal power plant flyash and it was analysed using XRD and FTIR. The FTIR spectra showed a peak at a region of 1170/cm and 1743/cm where strong absorption of methyl ester occurred, whereas XRD spectra show the presence of mullite and quartz in the thermal power plant ash were the source of catalyst. The synthesized catalyst was used for producing biodiesel and influence of parameters on the production of biodiesel, like temperature, methanol oil ratio and catalyst loading were evaluated. The optimisation of these parameters was done. The chemical and physical properties of biodiesel were evaluated as per ASTM-D6751 standard [1].

Keywords

Heterogeneous catalyst, Waste cooking oil, Esterification, Transesterification

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IJEP 40 (9) : 927-933 (2020)

Batch Adsorption Of Acid Blue 113 Dye From Aqueous Solution Using Surfactant-Modified Zeolite

Davoud Balarak, Hajar Abasizdeh, Zeynab Jalalzayi, P. Rajiv and P. Vanathi

Abstract

In recent years, the application and search of alternative cheap and eco-friendly adsorbents to replace activated carbon was made. It has been a major focus for the removal of dyes from wastewater. In this study, surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)-modified zeolite (CTAB-Z) was used for removal of Acid Blue 113 (AB113) from an aqueous solution by adsorption technique. For adsorption study, various parameters were optimized and data were adjusted to three isotherm models: Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin, in order to determine which presented the best adjustment to the experimental data. Also, kinetics study for adsorption was evaluated using diffusion models, such as pseudo first order kinetic and pseudo second order kinetic models. Results revealed that at AB113 concentration of 10 mg/L, adsorbent dose of 2 g/L, a contact time of 75 min, the AB113 removal reached to about 98.2%. Adsorption data fitted best into the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was 22.75 mg/g. The pseudo second order kinetics best described the kinetics of the adsorption system. The results obtained in this study indicated that CTAB-Z will be an attractive candidate for removing AB113 dye from the dye wastewater.

Keywords

Adsorption behaviour, Acid Blue 113, CTAB-Z, Isotherms, Kinetics

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IJEP 40 (9) : 934-940 (2020)

Health Risk Assessment In Size Segregated PM At Urban Traffic Site In Agra

Rahul Tiwari, Prabal P. Singh and Ajay Taneja

Abstract

Air quality at Khandari (a mixture of city traffic and highway pollution), Agra was evaluated. The objective of the present study was to determine the concentration of size-segregated particulate matter with the characterization of metals at a traffic junction. Size fraction of PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.5 was measured with the help of cascade sioutas impactor during the study period of May 2018. The average concentration at Khandari sampling site (busy traffic junction) of PM2.5-1.0 was 255.51 ± 34.63 µg/m3 and PM1.0-0.5 was 287.97 ± 86.11 µg/m3 that exceeded 4-5 times the National Ambient Air Quality standards (60 µg/m3) [1]. Twelve metals were subsequently determined by ICP-OES, that is Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. In both the fractions of particulate matter, Al, Ba, Ca, Mg, Pb and Zn were found in higher concentration in comparison to other metals. Metals source identification was done by the enrichment factor (EF). Assessed health hazard for individual metals recognized greater risk posing to children and adults in different size fractionated particles (PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.5). The average value of hazards quotients (HQs) for PM2.5-1.0 (3.80) and PM1.0-0.5 (4.26) was found higher. The observed HQs values far exceeded the acceptable level. The trend of the average value of carcinogenic risk factor was found higher than the prescribed limit (1×10-6) for an adult and child.

Keywords

Traffic junction, Size segregated PM, Metals, Health risk assessment

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IJEP 40 (9) : 941-949 (2020)

The Effect Of Activated Granular Carbon On Compressibility And Strength Characteristic For Naturally Contaminated Cohesion Soil

Hadeel Majid Hussein, Sohail Ayub and Asif Ali Siddiqui

Abstract

This paper focuses on the capability of granular carbon for stabilization of naturally contaminated soil with industrial leachate acquired from Al-Musayyib Thermal Power Plant positioned in Iraq that typically removed as a negative product. The soil was filled by disposing the leachate into the drainage channel for 20 years, thereafter remedied with two percentages of granular carbon (5 and 10%). The geochemical factors for all soil specimens (standard, effluent contamination and granular carbon remedied) constitute of compaction, specific gravity, consolidation, triaxial test (UU), pH, sulphate, chloride, organic matter, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), nitrate and heavy metals. The results attained shows the capability of granular carbon material to optimize the chemical characteristics of fouled soil and might possibly prevent the problems of pollution to the adjacent soil.

Keywords

Contaminant soil, Treated soil, Physico-chemical properties, Thermal power plant, Granular carbon

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IJEP 40 (9) : 950-959 (2020)

Water Pollution Control For Segamat River Using Total Maximum Daily Load Analysis

Faridah Mohd Razelan, Wardah Tahir and Nasehir Khan E.M Yahaya

Abstract

Pollution is the largest threat to rivers in Malaysia. Since river waters are the main sources of water supply to the country, maintaining its quality is of prime importance. In this study, the total maximum daily load (TMDL) analysis was used to control the water pollution of Segamat river. The objectives of this study include the measurement of water quality indices along the Segamat river due to the surrounding activities, assessment on the most significant water quality parameter as the target parameter and determination of the acceptable point and non-point sources load discharges amount to attain class II condition for the river. The observation of the current water quality for the Segamat river had been carried out in both dry and wet condition and it can be concluded that the water quality during the dry condition was slightly better compared to the wet condition. In carrying out the TMDL method, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) had been selected as the TMDL target parameter due to its impairment frequency. Finally, using the TMDL method, the loads that need to be reduced at every point of discharges had been determined. By controlling the pollution load according to the maximum allowable calculated values, the water quality along the Segamat river can be maintained at class II.

Keywords

River, Pollution, Total maximum daily load, Water quality, Target parameter, Point sources

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IJEP 40 (9) : 960-964 (2020)

Effect Of Sequential Application Of Herbicides On Soil Microflora In Transplanted Rice

N. Srividhya and S. Ayyappan

Abstract

To study the effect of sequential application of herbicides on soil microbial populations of transplanted rice, a field experiment was conducted at experimental farm, Padappai, during Kharif season of 2016 and 2017 with eight weed control treatments. The results exposed that microorganisms were able to degrade herbicides and used them as a source of biogenic elements for their specific functional processes. However, before degradation, herbicides have more toxic effects on microorganisms, decreasing their quantity, activity and consequently, the diversity of their populations. The sequential application of Pretilachlor at 1000 mL/ha at 3 DAT (days after transplanting) followed by Bispyribac sodium at 250 mL/ha at 15 DAT treatment, significantly increased 9.3% and 4.1% actinomycetes population, when compared with hand weeding and untreated control samples at 60 DAT. The toxic effects of herbicides in paddy field are usually most severe instantly after application. Later on, microorganisms take part in a biodegradation process and then the degraded organic herbicides provide carbon rich substrates which in terms maximize the microbial population in the rhizosphere.

Keywords

Transplanted rice, Sequential applications, Herbicides, Microbial population

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IJEP 40 (9) : 965-972 (2020)

Effective Adsorption Of Fluoride From Aqueous Solutions By Zr Doped Biopolymer

Piyush Kant Pandey and Yashu Verma

Abstract

A composite bio-adsorbent prepared by impregnating metal ion into chitosan has been investigated for defluoridation from aqueous solution in a batch system. The Box-Behnken design was used to optimize various parameters, like pH, initial concentration and biomass dosage on the percentage of fluoride removal. The maximum removal of 95% was observed for 25 mg/L fluoride ions at pH 7 with the adsorbent dosage of 20 g/L. A high R2 value for Freundlich isotherm indicated physisorption on the heterogeneous surface of composite bio-adsorbent (CBA) with maximum sorption capacity of 2.5 mg/g. The adsorption data fitted well for Langmuir isotherm also. The slow kinetics of sorption (5 hr) indicated its multilayered adsorption process. The existence of co-ions decreased the removal efficiency of CBA at higher concentrations. The adsorbent worked suitably well for both acidic and neutral pH conditions. The adsorbent was effectively regenerated (90%) using dilute NaOH, making it acceptable to multi-cycle use.

Keywords

Adsorption, Chitosan, Composite bio-adsorbent, Fluoride

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IJEP 40 (9) : 973-978 (2020)

Assessment Of Dugwell Groundwater Qualities Of Some Areas Of Imphal West District Of Manipur

Kshetrimayum Suman Devi and Nandababu Singh Laishram

Abstract

Fourteen dugwell groundwater samples (S-1 to S-14) were collected during the pre-monsoon period (May) of 2019. They were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters, like temperature, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), total alkalinity (TA) (and hence CO32- and HCO3), total hardness (TH), Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and Cl. The values/concentrations of physico-chemical parameters for thirteen groundwaters (S-1 to S-9 and S-11 to S-14) were found to be below/within the acceptable limits of BIS standard for drinking water as well as that of WHO. But the pH value of S-10 is not within the acceptable limit of BIS (6.5-8.5). So, except S-10, all other thirteen groundwaters belong to the category of drinking water from physico-chemical analysis point of view but for S-10, liming is required to improve the pH value. Since the TDS values for all fourteen groundwaters are less than 1000 mg/L, all of them can be used for other domestic purposes. All the groundwaters are found to be fit for irrigation purpose as their RSC and SAR values are within the safe and excellent categories of water for irrigation purposes. Further from correlation coefficient data point of view, TDS shows strong positive correlations with EC, TA and TH. Total alkalinity (TA) is due to the presence of mainly dissolved Ca(HCO3)2, Mg(HCO3)2 and NaHCO3. Again, total hardness (TH) for different groundwaters is mainly due to the presence of dissolved Ca(HCO3)2, Mg(HCO3)2, CaCl2 and MgCl2.

Keywords

Physico-chemical parameters, Drinking, Irrigation, BIS, WHO

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IJEP 40 (9) : 979-984 (2020)

Partial Replacement Of Cement With Cementitous Material In Permeable Concrete

Akshay Mohan, Alan Tom, Aneena Merin Sony, Richa Susan, Manoj Nallanathel and Dhanesh J. Dhanam

Abstract

Permeable concrete consists of cement, coarse aggregate and water, with little to no fine aggregates, that is why permeable concrete has a very rough and uneven appearance. When used in place of conventional concrete, permeable pavement decreases the total amount of runoff leaving a site, promotes infiltration of runoff into the ground, reduces the amount of pollutants carried to a storm drain or waterway and aids with reducing peak runoff velocity and volume. The major drawback of permeable concrete is that it lacks strength, to overcome this, the cement in the concrete is partially replaced by other cementitious material. This paper deals with the partial replacement of cement with fly ash and rice husk ash. Cement is replaced with different proportions of fly ash (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%) and rice husk ash (2%, 3%, 5%). By keeping the water-cement ratio constant (0.38), the increase in fly ash content increases the strength (upto 10% fly ash) then the strength gradually decreases. The permeability of the concrete increases with an increase in the fly ash content. An optimum of 10% fly ash is obtained as a result. In this paper, an earnest approach is done to enhance the efficiency of pervious concrete using different local wastes.

Keywords

Pervious, Permeability, Fly ash, Rice husk ash

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IJEP 40 (9) : 985-990 (2020)

Optimization Of Physical Parameters For Chlorpyrifos Degrading Bacterial Strain Using Box-Behnken Model

Hemlata, Anil Kumar, Vinod Chhokar, Vikas Beniwal and Rohit Chauhan

Abstract

Abundant use of pesticides in agriculture accumulates in soil and drained to underground water eventually leading to the food chain. This is harmful to humans, animals and non-target insect; this is the reason to make environment pesticide free. Bacterial strains isolated from soil and water samples collected from agriculture area, strain FIT1 (Pseudomonas plecoglossicida with Gene Bank number KY072848) selected for enhanced degradation of chlorpyrifos and subjected to carry out their ability to degrade the pesticide by absorbance method using UV-VIS NIR spectrophotometer (Shimadzu). Response surface methodology was designed for optimization of degradation condition of chlorpyrifos using the Box-Behnken model. Design expert 10.0.6 software was used for the optimization of four important independent variables – X1 (pH 6-8), X2 (temperature 20-40oC), X3 (rpm) and X4 (1-3 mL, per mL contained 3×108 CFU plate count method). Model data indicated that mean square as 227.59 and P-value lower than 0.01% (0.0032) considered a significant model. There is a 36.80% chance of a lack of fit. F-value indicated non-significant lack of fit that model is fit and successfully placed. It was concluded that enhanced degradation of chlorpyrifos (more than 90%) by the isolated strain within a minimum period of incubation in optimized condition can be used over a chlorpyrifos contaminated area to remove such pollutant.

Keywords

Chlorpyrifos, Response surface methodology, Box Behnken design, Organophosphate

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IJEP 40 (9) : 991-996 (2020)

Study Of Adsorption Parameters For The Removal Of Lead (II) Using Syzygium jambos

P. Sirisha and Sayeeda Sultana

Abstract

The industrialization and modernization all over the world cause environmental imbalances through their byproducts of heavy metals, these are becoming dangerous to the health of human beings, animals and aquatic creatures. The heavy metals can enter water supply by industrial discharge and thereby releasing heavy metals into streams, lakes, rivers and groundwater. Lead (Pb) is one of the heavy metals, it has become a part of our day to day life through various applications. This paper presents in detail various analytical results, with respect to the impact of different adsorption parameters for the removal of lead (II) from aqueous solutions using Syzygium jambos (SJ) leaves and seeds powder as an adsorbent. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used to obtain the results of the percentage of adsorption for different optimal parameters. In addition to these results, this paper proposes the best type of adsorption among Syzygium jambos leaf and its seed. The detailed research review indicated that very less research happened in the utilization of Syzygium jambos as an adsorbent. Therefore, the results presented in this paper are novel and are useful for the researchers and for the society to sidestep the toxicity of lead (II).

Keywords

Syzygium jambos, Adsorption, Removal of toxic metals, Toxicity of lead, Effect of adsorption parameters

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IJEP 40 (9) : 997-1002 (2020)

Fixed Bed Adsorption Of Ni (II) Ions From Aqueous Solution By Using Used Battery Cell Carbon As Adsorbent For The Evaluation Of Breakthrough Curve

Priyanka Lahot and Dinesh Prakash Tiwari

Abstract

Fixed bed adsorption was carried out by using utilized battery cell carbon as an adsorbent for the degradation of nickel metal ion. Batch equilibrium adsorption was studied using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Breakthrough adsorption behaviour was studied for initial influent concentration, bed depth and flow rates. Breakthrough time was increased with increased flow rate and bed depth. Mathematical modelling was employed to check the yield concentration through a fixed bed. Different models, such as Yoon-Nelson, Wolborska and Thomas model were used to find out the performance of fixed bed by calculating different parameters. All models were fitted to the experimental data to evaluate the breakthrough curve and to expand characteristics parameters for the column that could be used in process designing. Maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 1662.81 mg/g for 5 mL/min, 1476.26 mg/g for 3 mL/min and 646 mg/g for 1 mL/min. Service time required for 50% of adsorbate was 166.28 min for 5 mL/min, 246.04 min for 3 mL/min and 323.16 min for 1 mL/min according to Yoon-Nelson model. All the runs for the evaluation of breakthrough were done at room temperature (35°C).

Keywords

Column, Adsorption, Modelling, Wolborska model, Thomas model, Yoon-Nelson model

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IJEP 40 (9) : 1003-1008 (2020)

Impact Of Petroleum Industry On Vegetation Of Sola Reserve Forest Of Assam

P. Jiji and Raj Shekhar Singh

Abstract

Heavy crude oil leakage produces a cumulative impact on the biodiversity of Sola reserve forest. Sola reserve forest is one of the highly degrading evergreen forests of Charaido districts of Assam. A major part of the forest is markedly impacted by Lakhwa oil field since the last 6 decades, resulting in loss of biodiversity. Forest survey and structural analysis indicated 223 species belongs to 190 genera under 92 families. The total numbers of species (TNS) in Poaceae and Papilionaceae family were 12 and 9 in protected sites and only 2 species of each in disturbed sites, respectively. The protected sites consist of following dominant species Dipterocarpus retusus BL alongwith Lagerstroemia speciosa and Eupatorium odoratum. The disturbed sites consist of following dominant species – Axonopus compressus and Eupatorium odoratum. Species, like Alpinia galanga, Clerodendron colebrookianum, Smilax macrophylla, Gnetum gnemon, G. latifolium, Calamus floribundus, Aquilaria agallocha, Magnolia griffithii and M. gustavii were found endangered. The major issue of biodiversity loss is climate change and global warming which wind up in alarming circumstances. Therefore, there is need for biodiversity conservation schemes to protect the vegetation of the area.

Keywords

Biodiversity, Disturbed site, Crude oil pollution, Endangered, Conservation

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