Wetland Vegetation in Sludge Treatment Wetland : A Review

IJEP 39 (1) : 29-45 (2019)

R. M. Garud and G. R. Munavalli


The presence of wetland vegetation in sludge treatment wetland (STW) is one of the most important aspects of wetlands and their presence distinguishes constructed treatment wetlands from sludge drying bed. The wetland vegetation is one of the design components as it undergoes and support the pollutant removal mechanism and depending upon the characteristics of sludge applied in the sludge treatment wetland. The wetland vegetation used in sludge treatment wetland should be tolerant of soils, climatic conditions and seasonal cycles of inundation and drought. In this review, we consider wetland vegetation that have been used in such studies to play an important role in sludge treatment wetland that take part in enhancing sludge dewatering and stabilization. The decomposition of organic matter present in sludge and wastewater through absorption by plant and microbial conversion forms soilroot-contaminant plant microbe system. The essential nutrients in sludge are converted into a useful end product through biological activity and make it safer for reuse and maintain soil fertility over long periods of time. Phragmites australis (common reed) species of the genera Typha (latifolia, angustifolia, domingensis, orientalis and glauca) and Scirpus (for example, lacustris, validus, californicus and acutus) spp. are used.  


Sludge treatment wetland, wetland vegetation, Phragmites australis