A Study On Water Quality Of The River Ganga In Uttar Pradesh, India- A Physico-chemical And Statistical Analysis

IJEP 41(12): 1445-1453 : Vol. 41 Issue. 12 (December 2021)

Seema Singh1, Ruchi Saxena2* and Ashok Kumar3

1. Nari Shiksha Niketan P.G. College, Department of Zoology, Lucknow – 226 001, U.P., India
2. Nari Shiksha Niketan P.G. College, Department of Chemistry, Lucknow – 226 001, U.P., India
3. University of Lucknow, Department of Statistics, Lucknow – 226 007, U.P., India


Severe pollution due to various anthropogenic activities is causing an imbalance in the Ganga ecosystem ultimately reducing its potential of being a natural water resource. In the present study, the five-year data (2015-2019) for water quality in the river Ganga has been assessed statistically for paired t-test, repeated measures ANOVA and estimated marginal means at Kannauj, Kanpur, Prayagraj and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. Monthly values of physico-chemical parameters, namely dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total coliform bacteria (TCB) have been determined and taken as markers to assess water quality. The key findings of the statistical analysis by repeated-measures ANOVA test revealed that the DO in 2019 became significant at Prayagraj, Kanpur and Varanasi. The estimated marginal means of BOD downstream at Prayagraj and Varanasi fell from 4. 5 mg/L and 5.8 mg/L in 2017 to 2.8 mg/L and 3.8 mg/L in 2019, respectively. The value of TCB downstream at Prayagraj in 2016 reached a maximum of 44,000 MPN/100 mL which decreased to 21,000 MPN/100 mL in 2018 and 18,000 MPN/100 mL in 2019 implying an overall decrease in pollution. This is attributed to better management of municipal solid waste and an increase in the volume of water under the Namami Gange project.


Water quality, Ganga, Dissolved oxygen, Biochemical oxygen demand, Total coliform bacteria


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