Recent Approach On Biodegradation Of Textile Dyes – A Review

IJEP 41(3): 287-292 : Vol. 41 Issue. 3 (March 2021)

U. Ushani1,2*, Salman2, G. Pavithra2, A. Meena Sankari2 and Veera Prakash2

1. Karpaga Vinayaga College of Engineering and Technology, Department of Biotechnology, Chengalpattu, India
2. Karpagam Academy of Higher Education, Department of Biotechnology, Coimbatore – 641 021, India


Rapid industrialization has certain upsurge to several undesirable origins that accrued in the planet upto noxious intensities to destroy the natural atmosphere. Systematic growths are deliberated as key influences for improvement of both emerging and under established nations, but awkwardly, maximum of the productions industries in these nations do not have accurate waste treatment amenities and liberating a huge amount of wastes discharges. A preponderance of xenobiotics (either untreated or partially treated) unrestricted from industries is diversified up with the natural water streams and to the territory of the planet. Unprocessed or incompletely treated textile effluents are extremely lethal, as they comprise a huge amount of lethal compounds and heavy metals. The problem of water pollution due to the release of industrial wastewater into natural water streams were perceived by western nations in the 19th century and also in India after independence. Biodegradation or usage of microbes in textile dye breaks down into non-hazardous ingredients.


Microorganism, Biodegradation, Textile dye, Non-hazardous ingredients


  1. Chacko, J. T. and K. Subramaniam. 2011. Enzymatic degradation of azo-dyes: A review. Int. J. Env. Sci., 1(6): 1250.
  2. Jamee, R. and R. Siddique. 2020. Biodegradation of synthetic dyes of textile effluent by microorganisms: An environmentally and economically sustainable approach. European J. Microbiol. Immunol., 9(4): 114-118.
  3. Singh, L. and V. P. Singh. 2015. Textile dyes degradation: A microbial approach for biodegradation of pollutants. In Microbial degradation of synthetic dyes in wastewaters, environmental science and engineering. Ed S. N. Singh. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland. pp18.
  4. Barragàn, B. E., C. Costa and M. C. Marquez. 2007. Biodegradation of azo dyes by bacteria inoculated on solid media. Dyes Pigments. 75(5): 73-81.
  5. Sriram, N., et al. 2013. Biological degradation of reactive dyes by using bacteria isolated from dye effluent contaminated soil. Middle-East J. Sci. Res.,17(12): 1695-1700.
  6. Saranraj, P., et al. 2010. Decolourization and degradation of direct azo dyes and biodegradation of textile dye effluent by using bacteria isolated from textile dye effluent. J. Ecobiotech., 2(7): 7-11.
  7. Hassan, M. M., et al. 2013. Biodegradation of textile azo dyes by bacteria isolated from dyeing industry effluent. Int. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 2(8): 27-31.
  8. Mishra, S. and A. Maiti. 2018. The efficacy of bacterial species to decolourise reactive azo, anthroquinone and triphenyl methane dyes from wastewater: A review. Env. Sci. Poll. Res., 25(9): 8286-8314.
  9. Khan, R., V. Patel and Z. Khan. 2020. Bioremedia-tion of dyes from textile and dye manufacturing industry effluent. In Abatement of environmental pollutants. pp 107-125.
  10. Ekanayake, E. M. and P. M. Manage. 2019. Green approach for decolourization and detoxification of textile dye – CI direct blue 201 using native bacterial strains. Env. Natural Res. J., 18(1): 1-8.
  11. Amoozegar, M. A., et al. 2011. Azo dye decolour-ization by halophilic and halototerant micro organisms. Annals Microbiol., 61(2): 217-230.
  12. Vatandoostarani, S., et al. 2017. Degradation of azo dye methyl red by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763. Int. Biodeterio. Biodegrad., 125: 62-72.
  13. Mendes, C.R., et al. 2018. Biodegradation study of azo dye direct orange 39 by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a vertical bioreactor. Exploring Microorganisms: Recent Adv. Appl. Microbiol., 15:45.
  14. Garcia-Martinez, Y., et al. 2015. Biodegradation of acid orange 7 in an anaerobic-aerobic sequential treatment system. Chem. Eng. Process. 94: 99-104.
  15. Fernando, E., et al. 2020. Complete degradation of the azo dye acid orange 7 and bioelectricity generation in an integrated microbial fuel cell, aerobic two-stage bioreactor system in continuous flow mode at ambient temperature. Bioresour. Tech., 156: 155-162.
  16. Wang, Z., et al. 2018. Enhanced azo dye reactive red 2 degradation in anaerobic reactors by dosing conductive material of ferro-ferric oxide. J. Hazard. Mater., 357: 226-234.
  17. Qu, Y., et al. 2010. Decolourization of reaction dark blue KR by the synergism of fungus and bacterium using response surface methodology. Bioresour. Tech., 101(21): 8016-8023.
  18. Tan, L., et al. 2016a. Enhanced azo dye biodegradation performance and halotolerance of Candida tropicalis SYF-1 by static magnetic field (SMF). Bioresour. Tech. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.12 2283.
  19. Lai, C. Y., et al. 2017. Decolourization of azo dye and generation of electricity by microbial fuel cell with laccase-producing white-rot fungus on cathode. Appl. Energy. 188: 392-398.
  20. Ishchi, T. and G. Sibi. 2020. Azo dye degradation by Chlorella vulgaris: Optimization and kinetics. Biol. Chem., 14(1): 1-7.
  21. Tan, L., et al. 2016b. Aerobic decolourization, degradation and detoxification of azo dyes by a newly isolated salt-tolerant yeast Scheffersomyces spartinae TLHS-SF1. Bioresour. Tech., 203: 287-294.
  22. Sharghi, E. A., B. Bonakdarpour and M. Pakzadeh. 2014. Treatment of hypersaline produced water employing a moderately halophilic bacterial consortium in a membrane bioreactor: Effect of salt concentration on organic removal performance, mixed liquor characteristics and membrane fouling. Bioresour. Tech., 164: 203-213.
  23. Filipic, G. and U. Cvelbar. 2012. Copper oxide nanowires: A review of rowth. Nanotech., 23(19).
  24. Pant, D., et al. 2010. A review of the substrates used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for sustainable energy production. Bioresour. Tech., 101: 1533-1543.
  25. Savizi, I. S., et al. 2012. Simultaneous decolour-ization and bioelectricity generation in a dual chamber microbial fuel cell using electropolymerized-enzymatic cathode. Env. Sci. Tech., 46: 6584-6593.
  26. Mani, P., et al. 2017. Decolourisation of acid orange 7 in a microbial fuel cell with a laccase-based biocathode: Influence of mitigating pH changes in the cathode chamber. Enzyme Microbial Tech., 96: 170-176.
  27. Ding, H., et al. 2010. Photocatalytically improved azo dye reduction in a microbial fuel cell with rutile-cathode. Bioresour. Tech., 101: 3500-3505.
  28. Fernando, E., et al. 2014. Complete degradation of the azo dye acid orange 7 and bioelectricity generation in an integrated microbial fuel cell, aerobic two-stage bioreactor system in continuous flow mode at ambient temperature. Bioresour. Tech., 156: 155-162.
  29. Waghmode, T. R., et al. 2019. Sequential photocatalysis and biological treatment for the enhanced degradation of the persistent azo dye methyl red. J. Hazard. Mater., 371: 115-122.
  30. Ushani, U., et al. 2018. Sodium thiosulphate induced immobilized bacterial disintegration of sludge: An energy efficient and cost effective platform for sludge management and biomethanation. Bioresour. Tech., 260: 273-282.
  31. Ushani, U., et al. 2017. Immobilized and MgSO4induced cest effective bacterial disintegration of waste activated sludge for effective anaerobic digestion. Chemosphere. 175: 66-75.