Hydrochemical Facies Of Groundwater Of Panchaganga River Basin, Kolhapur

IJEP 41(4): 372-378 : Vol. 41 Issue. 4 (April 2021)

A.R. Kulkarni*

College of Non-Conventional Vocational Courses, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India


Groundwaters undergo changes in their chemistry and quality as they pass through rocks, soils and human settlement areas. The modification is manifested in variations in their cation and anion constituents. Attempt has been made to classify groundwater on the basis of their chemistry, the sources of the major ions and to categorize quality of groundwater for irrigation purposes. The physical parameters, such as pH (7.5 average 8.5), EC (400-3268 mmhos/cm) and TDS (1166-2451.25 mg/L) found to be higher in groundwater samples near the sugar factories. Average values of cations and anions were in the order of Ca (107.04 mg/L), Na (67.46 mg/L), Mg (61.31 mg/L), K (11.44 mg/L) and Cl (245.38 mg/L), HCO3 (192.50 mg/L), SO4 (59.51 mg/L), respectively. Average sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) was 1.35. Calcium – magnesium, cation hydrochemical facies is most dominant with 92% followed by 8% of sodium – calcium facies. Anion hydrochemical facies is dominated by chloride – sulphate – bicarbonate facies (65.39%), bicarbonate – chloride – sulphate facies (19.23%) and chloride – sulphate facies (15.38%). The dominance of calcium – sodium facies can be attributed to the leaching or ion-exchange reactions. Because of medium to high salinity hazard ground water is by and large suitable to moderate to high salt tolerant crops demanding for reclamation of soil for better agriculture yield.


Groundwater, physico-chemical parameters, hydrochemical facies, hydrolysis, salinity hazard


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