Ferrochrome Slag Aggregate as a Sustainable Pavement Construction Material: A Review

IJEP 42(13): 1601-1615 : Vol. 42 Issue. 13 (Conference 2022)

Pradeep Kumar and Shalinee Shukla*

Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad, Department of Civil Engineering, Prayagraj – 211 004, Uttar Pradesh, India


The current annual production of crude steel in India increased to 99.57 Million tonnes (MT) in 2020 in comparison to 95.477 MT in 2016 (Annual report, Ministry of Steel, Government of India). The amount of steel slag generation accounts for 20-30% of the total quantity of the nation’s crude steel production, which results in an annual generation of approximately 18.5 million tonnes of solid steel slag in India, which is significantly lower than the other developed nation (Indian Minerals yearbook). According to the National Steel Policy 2017, this figure will rise to 30 MT by 2030 with a likely increase in the quantity of steel production. Presently in India, as a result of limited utilization practices, a vast quantity of iron and steel slag is dumped in the yards of each production unit, occupying prime agricultural land and causing severe environmental pollution. The utilization of slag is an efficient method for addressing these issues. Steel slag utilization as recycled raw material as road aggregate, cement and concrete admixture, soil stabilizer and construction materials highly depends upon the physical and chemical characterization of steel slag. Over the years, various industrial wastes and by-products have been identified as sustainable construction materials. Utilization of industrial waste such as granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS), silica fume (SF) and fly ash (FA) has been already defined in codal provisions as sustainable construction materials. Ferrochrome slag (FCS) is another waste material obtained on ferrochrome extraction from natural minerals. Because of its chemical configuration, physical properties and mechanical behaviour, FCS has fascinated the researcher’s attentiveness as an alternative green and sustainable construction material. The present study consists of FCS’s physical, chemical and mechanical attributes. The review article also investigates the potential use of FCS aggregates to replace conventional natural aggregates in the concrete and road construction sectors. The purpose of this work is to present an overview of recent developments in the utilization of ferrochrome slag in various structural construction applications such as pavement and building construction. The available literature shows that FCS coarse aggregates perform better than virgin natural aggregates and enhance mix strength and durability characteristics. However, FCS fine aggregates behaved contradictorily to coarse FCS aggregates. Therefore, further studies are required to evaluate the effect of FCS fine aggregate on the mechanical and durability characteristics of mixes. Also, FCS-modified blend’s long-term safety and environmental impact need to be assessed.


Ferrochrome, Slag, Aggregate, Concrete, Sustainable


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