Environmental Impact of Shrimp Pond Effluents on Water Quality and Phytoplankton Biomass in a Tropical Mangrove Estuary

IJEP 42(2): 158-170 : Vol. 42 Issue. 2 (February 2022)

Ch. Venkateswara Rao1, M. Muralidhar2 and P. Shyamala1*

1. Andhra University, Department of Physical, Nuclear Chemistry and Chemical Oceanography, School of Chemistry, Visakhapatnam – 530 003, Andhra Pradesh, India
2. ICAR-Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture, Chennai – 600 028, Tamil Nadu, India


Water quality and phytoplankton biomass were examined over one year period concerning aquaculture farming periods in a river-dominated, mangrove estuary receiving periodic inputs of effluents at outfall of shrimp farms (OFSF) stations from adjacent brackishwater shrimp ponds and in away from shrimp farms (AFSF) stations. Salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO) and total suspended solids (TSS) at the OFSF stations were significantly different (p<0.01) from AFSF stations. There were no significant differences between the OFSF and AFSF stations in dissolved nutrient concentrations. Water quality and phytoplankton biomass in OFSF stations were within the ambient levels, based on comparison with AFSF stations. Regular river discharge and tides of semi-diurnal type cause water quality and phytoplankton biomass in the OFSF stations of lower and middle reaches of estuary returned to levels equivalent to those in the AFSF stations. The limited spatial and temporal impact suggests that the effluents were dissipated by tides and assimilated and/or mineralized by the estuarine food web. Our results imply that river-dominated, mangrove estuary has some capacity, atleast over short spatial and temporal scales, to process intermittent inputs of pond-derived effluents.


Brackishwater, aquaculture, Effluents, Farming periods, Nutrients, Phytoplankton, Water quality


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