Synergistic Effect of Murraya koenigii Leaf Extract and Probiotic Against Human Enteric Pathogens

IJEP 43(1): 3-12 : Vol. 43 Issue. 1 (January 2023)

Rudrangshu Chatterjee1,2, Sapna Gupta2, B. N. Panda2, M.L. Aggarwal2 and Swati Tripathi1*

1. Amity University, Amity Institute of Microbial Technology, Noida, Uttar Pradesh – 201 301, India
2. Shriram Institute for Industrial Research, New Delhi – 110 007, India


Medicinal plants and probiotics both have very high potential in terms of their antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic enteric bacteria. Antibiotic resistance is one of the major problems in the medical world and sewage waters are the primary habitats to harbour antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB), especially multi-drug resistance (MDR) human enteric pathogens. Micro-organisms have developed resistance to many commercial antibiotics due to the various uses of antibacterial drugs. The present study dealt with isolation, identification and characterization of human enteric pathogens from different sewage treatment plants located in Delhi. Initially samples were analyzed for the presence of pathogenic human enteric bacteria through morphological, biochemical and molecular analysis. The objective of the study was to evaluate the anti-microbial activity of Murraya koenigii and combination of Murraya koenigii with Lactobacillus plantarum which is commonly used probiotic against gastrointestinal disorders. Combining the effect of medicinal plant extract and probiotics may be a new approach due to their complementary antimicrobial effects and practically no side effects on human body. The synergistic effect of the Murraya koenigii leaf extract and probiotics will be necessarily higher than using them alone as antimicrobial product. Thus combination therapy could be effective for prevention of gastrointestinal infections and may be considered an alternative medicine to antibiotic regimens.


Sewage water, Murraya koenigii, Lactobacillus plantarum


  1. Joshi, Anita. 2009. Hindustan Antibiotics Bulletin. 47-48 (1-4):7-12.
  2. Perez, C., M. Pauli and P. Bazerque. 1990. An antibiotic assay by the agar-well diffusion method. Acta Biologiae Medicine Experiments. 15:113-115.
  3. Nisbet, L.J. and M. Moore. 1997. Will nature products remain an important source of drug research for the future? Current Opinion Biotech., 8:708-712.
  4. Vats, M., H. Singh and S. Sardana. 2011. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of roots of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng (Rutaceae). Brazilian J. Microbiol., 42(4): 1517 8382.
  5. Hellier, M.D. and J.G. Williams. 2007. The burden of gastro-intestinal disease : Implications for the provision of care in the U.K. Gut., 56:165-166.
  6. Goyal, P., A. Chauhan and P. Kaushik. 2010. Assessment of Commiphora wightii (Arn) Bhandari (Guggul) as potential source for antibaterial agent. J. Medicine Medical Sci., 1(3):71-75.
  7. Sharma, V., et al. 1977. Antibacterial property of Allum sativum Linn. in-vivo and in-vitro studies. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 15:466-468.
  8. Elnima, E.I., et al. 1983. The antimicrobial activity of garlic and onion extracts. Pharmazie. 38:747- 748.
  9. Farbman, K.S., et al. 1993. Antibacterial activity of garlic and onions : A historical perspective. Ped. Infectious Dis. J., 12:613-614.
  10. Salman, M.T., R.A. Khan and I. Shukla. 2009. A study of Nigella sativa Linn. seeds for antimicrobial activity agains multidrug resistant clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginose. Hippocratic J. Unani Med., 4(4):95-104.
  11. Joshi, B., et al. 2011. Phytochemical extraction and antimicrobial properties of different medicinal plants : Ocimum sanctum (tulsi), Eugenia caryop-hyuata (clove), Achyranthes bidentate (datiwan) and Azadirachta indica (neem). J. Microbiol. Antimirob., 3(1):1-7.
  12. Herreros, M.A., et al. 2005. Antimicrobial activity and antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Armada cheese (a spanish goat’s milk cheese). Food Microbiol., 22:455-459. DOI:10. 1016/
  13. Tharmaraj, N. and N.P. Shah. 2009. Antimicrobial effects of probiotics against selected pathogenic and spoilage bacteria in cheese-based dips. Int. Food Res. J., 16:261-276.
  14. Cortes-Zavaleta, O., et al. 2014. Antifungal activity of Lactobacilli and its relationship with 3-phenyl lactic acid production. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 173:30-35.
  15. McFarland, L.V. 2015. Probiotics for the primary and secondary prevention of C. difficile infections : A meta-analysis and systematic review. Antibiotics. 4:160-178.
  16. Kumar, M., et al. 2016. Antimicrobial effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus against multidrug-resistant enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 48:265-270. DOI :10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2016.05. 014.
  17. Mirnejad, R., et al. 2013. The antimicrobial effect of Lactobacillus casei culture supernatant against multiple drug resistant clinical isolates of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri in-vitro. Iran Red Crescent Med. J., 15:122-126. DOI: 10.5812/ircmj. 7454.
  18. Ahn, K.B., et al. 2018. Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid inhibits biofilm formation of Streptococaus mutans. PlosOne. 13:e0192694. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0192694.
  19. Jamalifar, H., et al. 2011. Antimicrobial activity of different lactobacillus species against multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Iran J. Microbiol., 3:21-25.
  20. Kang, M.S., et al. 2017. Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus fermentum againts Staphylococcus aureus. Pathog. Dis., 75(2). DOI: 10.1093/femspd/ftx009.
  21. Jiang, M., et al. 2016. Evaluation of the antioxidative, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of the aloe fermentation supernatant containing Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1. Mediators inflamm. DOI: 10.1155/2016/2945650.
  22. IS 5887-1. 1976. Methods fior detection of bacteria responsible for food poisoning. Part I : Isolation, identification and enumeration of Escherichia coli. Indian Standards Institution, New Delhi.
  23. IS 5887-3. 1999. Methods fior detection of bacteria responsible for food poisoning. Part 3 : General guidance on methods for the detection of Salmonella. Indian Standards Institution, New Delhi.
  24. IS 13428. 2005. Packaged natural mineral water. Annex D : Detection and enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
  25. IS 5887-5. 1976. Methods for detection of bacteria responsible for food poisoning. Part 5: Isolation, identification and enumeration of Vibrio chole-rae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Indian Standards Institution, New Delhi.
  26. IS 5887-7. 1999. Methods for detection of bacteria responsible for food poisoning. Part 7 : General guidance on methods for isolation and identification of Shigella. Indian Standards Institution, New Delhi.
  27. Irfan, U. 2016. The antibacterial effect of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii). European J. Pharmaceutical Medical Res., 3(10):382-387.
  28. Kaushik, P. and P. Goyal. 2008. In-vitro evaluation of Datura innoxia (Thron-apple) for potential antibacterial activity. Indian. J. Microbiol., 48(3):353-357.
  29. Chatterjee, R., et al. 2012. Studies on susceptibility and resistance patterns of various E. coli isolated from different water samples agains clinically significant antibiotics. Int. J. Bioassay. 1(11):156-161.
  30. Rajendran, M.P., B.B. Pallaiyan and N. Selvaraj. 2014. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant profile of essential oil from Murraya koenigiii leaves. Avicenna J. Phytomed., 4(3):200-214.
  31. Christaki, E.V. and P.C. Florou-Paneri. 2010. Aloe vera : A plant for many uses. J. Food Agric. Env., 8(2):245-249.
  32. Babak, D. and S.N. Nahashon. 2014. A review on effects of aloe vera as a lead additive in broiler chicken diets. Annals Animal Sci., 14(3):491-500.
  33. Yoon, W.J., et al. 2009. Suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, INOS and CoX-2 expression by brown algae Sargassum micracanthum in RAW 264.7 macrophages. EurAsian J. Biosci., 3:130-143.
  34. Gareau, M.G., P.M. Sherman and W.A. Walker. 2010. Probiotics and the gut microbiota in intestinal health and disease. Nature Reviews: Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 7(9):503-514.
  35. Kaur, I.P., K. Chopra and A. Saini. 2002. Probiotics : Potential pharmaceutical applications. European J. Pharmaceutical Sci., 15(1):1-9.
  36. Sadeghi, E., et al. 2013. Effect of Cuminum cyminum L. essential oil and Lactobacillus acidophilus (a probiotic) on Staphlococcus aureus during the manufacture, ripening and storage of white brine cheese. J. Food Processing Preservation. 37:449-455.
  37. Ehsani, A. and R. Mahmoudi. 2012. Effects of Mentha longifolia L. essential oil and Lactobacillus casei on organoleptic properties and on the growth of Staphy lococcus auraus and Listeria monocy-togenes during manufacturing, ripening and storage of Iranian white-brined cheese. Int. J. Dairy Tech., 66(1):70-76.
  38. Mahmoudi, R., P. Zare and S. Nosratpour. 2015. Application of Teucrium polium essential oil and Lactobacillus casei in yoghurt. J. Essent. Oil Bearing Plants. 18(2):477-481.
  39. Evans, C.E., A. Banso and O.A. Samual. 2002. Efficacy of some nupe medicinal plants against Salmonelia typhi : An in-vitro study. J. Ethno-pharmacol., 80:21-24. DOI:10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00378-6.