Assessment of Water Quality using Physico-chemical and Micro-biological Characteristics and its Impact on Health: A Case Study of Madurai City

IJEP 43(1): 89-96 : Vol. 43 Issue. 1 (January 2023)

Aakriti Grover1 and Jitender Prasad2*

1. Central University of Tamil Nadu, Department of Geography, Thiruvarur, Tamil Nadu – 610 005, India
2. International Institute for Population Sciences, Department of Family and Generations, Mumbai, Maharashtra – 400 088, India


This study aims to assess drinking water quality using the physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics and their impact on human health. We analysed selected water parameters from four different locations in Madurai city, India. Additionally, an in-depth interview with 70 individuals was conducted to record their responses on drinking water availability and quality. The presence of pH values in the sample varied from 7.4-7.9, which is within the acceptable limit prescribed by the Bureau of Indian Standards [1]. However, in site 2, total dissolved solids (541 mg/L) and total hardness (257 mg/L) were not within the acceptable limit. Escherichia coliform and total coliform (1600 MNP/mL) exceeded the limit in all sample sites. Additionally, the presence of yeast and mould in the water samples exceeds the acceptable limit. Whereas 11% of supplied water by the corporation is unfit for consumption, 53% of the respondent is receiving cloudy water and 80% of the respondent reported the taste of water is not good, resulting in various types of health issues, that is diarrhoea, fever, cancer and others among the residents. Therefore, there is an urgent need to increase the water quality through detailed water analysis by the municipal corporation and increase health-related awareness programmes about water pollution.


Correlation matrix, Human health, India, Madurai, Physico-chemical and microbiological, Water quality


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