IJEP 40 (8) : 787-798 (2020)

Batch Adsorption Study On Removal Of Nitrate From Aqueous Solution By Darjeeling Tea Ash

Joydeep Bhattacharya and Sailendra Nath Mandal


The adsorbent was prepared from the waste residue of Darjeeling tea followed by pyrolysis process and was named as Darjeeling tea ash (DaTA). The DaTA was characterized using FTIR and BET analysis. The effectiveness of DaTA for removal of nitrate from aqueous solution was explored by batch adsorption experiments. The maximum adsorption of nitrate onto DaTA was 76.7% at pH 3 at 40oC for 100 mg/L nitrate (as NO3) solution at an equilibrium time of 90 min with optimum adsorbent dose of 7.5 g/L. The agitation speed (150 rpm) was kept constant in all experiments. The surface of the adsorbent was found heterogeneous and specific surface area as well as porosity of adsorbent both had contribution towards adsorption process. It was found that the kinetics of adsorption was well fitted into pseudo-second-order model and the data evaluated were adapted with D-R isotherm model as well as Freundlich isotherm model. Thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption was endothermic in nature with an activation energy of 25.214 kJ/mol. Kinetic study, isotherm study and thermodynamic study, all confirmed that the adsorption of nitrate onto DaTA was chemisorption process. DaTA was proved as an effective adsorbent to remove nitrate from aqueous solution at low pH.


Darjeeling tea ash, Nitrate removal, Batch adsorption, Kinetic model, Isotherm study, Thermodynamic study 

IJEP 40 (8) : 799-806 (2020)

Ambient Air Quality Status Near Kalingnagar, Jajpur, Odisha

Amarendra Harichandan, Kabir Mohan Sethy, Maniklal Ghosh, Himanshu Sekhar Patra and Sitakanta Pradhan


Ambient air quality (AAQ) of Jajpur industrial area, Odisha has been assessed by measuring particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5), sulphur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and by using air quality index (AQI). The result revealed moderate air pollution at all eight sites where the highest index value of 60.25 is recorded at location A2. Correlation study shows a strong direct relation among AQI and PM10 (r=0.818). Regression study reflects PM10 is good at predicting AQI (R2=0.6794). Multiple linear regression (MLR) study predicts AQI with very less error (rss=0.142483, R2=0.999788) where PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx and CO are independent variables. This study also identifies potential sources of pollution and the extent of air pollution.


Air quality index, Air pollution, PM10, Correlation, Multiple linear regression

IJEP 40 (8) : 807-816 (2020)

Economic Assessment Of Grid Connected Hybrid Green Energy System For An Institution In India

W. Abitha Memala, G. Merlin Sheeba, C. Bhuvaneswari and S. M. Shyni


The aim of this paper is to analyse an optimal, economic feasibility study of grid connected hybrid renewable energy sources for an educational institution situated in suburban parts of India. So it is necessary to evaluate the availability of electricity, calculate the load demand and finding the alternate energy solutions. In the present scenario, as electricity production is inadequate, the load demand is met by the conventional approaches, like diesel generator (DG), battery, etc. The tremendous increase in fuel prices and emission problems has led to a transformation in generating electricity through green energy sources. But the major problem faced is the selection of components due to the intermittent nature of the available green resources and the load demand for different sites. Keeping these demands in mind, this paper aims to find the solution to optimize various hybrid green resources, like solar PV system, wind system, diesel generator, fuel cell, battery and so on. HOMER software is used to find the techno-economic, environment-friendly suitable feasible combination of energy efficient system. The comparison is based on the reduction of greenhouse gas emission, cost of electrical energy (COE) production and operating cost (OC). The solution obtained from the analysis shows that a hybrid combination of Grid/SPV/WES/Battery sources can be a cost effective, sustainable and environmentally viable one.


Green energy, Greenhouse gas emission, Hybrid renewable energy sources, HOMER software, Techno-economic

IJEP 40 (8) : 817-823 (2020)

Formulation Of An Efficient AB210 Azo Dye Degrading Indigenous Consortium And Dye Biodegradation Studies

Shweta Agrawal, Devayani Tipre and Shailesh Dave


Amongst total textile dyes’ consumption, 60-70% commonly used textile dyes are azo dyes and a considerable amount is lost in the environment due to low dye exhaustion. Recent studies also profiled the carcinogenic, cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of these azo dyes. Biodegradation of azo dyes has received considerable attention since advanced biological methods have been developed for remediation, which is also regarded as eco-friendly, low cost and more efficient. A consortium was developed indigenously using a designed experiment and its dye degradation efficiency was tested using AB210 as a model dye. The consortium was found capable of degrading 100 mg/L of AB210 with a rate of 2.77 mg/L/hr, under static conditions at 35±2°C in Bushnell Hass medium. The consortium was also capable of decolourizing AB210 repeatedly, without supplementation of nutrients, for 7 cycles. UV–Visible spectroscopy and visual examinations showed decolourization of dye. The ADMI value of the textile industry effluents was reduced by 77.56% upon bioremediation by the consortium. 


Triazo dye, Acid Black 210, UV-Visible, Bioremediation, Consortium

IJEP 40 (8) : 824-829 (2020)

Restoration And Exploring Possibilities Of Developing Agricultural Practices Over Mined-Out Area – A Case Study

Archana Sinha, Bibhas Chandra, A. K. Mishra and Satish K. Sinha


With increasing stress on per capita land availability in a populous country, like India, the time has come to act on the inherent mining principle of considering it as an interim use of land. Post mining reclamation and restoration of land is sine-qua-non in the contemporary mining scenario. As mining induces peoples’ displacement that leads to intrusion into their human rights by a coerced change in their life and livelihood pattern. Developing sustainable agriculture practices over-restored mined-out area could be a possible solution in this regard that authors see its potentiality through the eyes of an actual case study in part practice at Lodna mining area, Jharia coalfields.


Mined-out area, Restoration, Sustainable agriculture, Inclusive growth, Human rights

IJEP 40 (8) : 830-835 (2020)

Determination Of Physico-Chemical Parameters And Removal Of Ammonia From Various Drinking Water Sources In Malappuram District

A. K. Sajeesh, P. Bashpa and K. Bijudas


Most of freshwater sources are polluted by an excess of iron, nitrate, ammonia, suspended solids, organic wastes, etc., in which the presence of ammonia is a major and newly emerging water quality problem. Drinking water samples collected in a random manner from 198 sources of Malappuram district in Kerala were studied by standard analytical procedures to determine various physico-chemical characteristics and amount of calcium, magnesium, chloride, fluoride, iron, nitrate, sulphate and ammonia. It was found that 58 samples have various physical contaminations and further analysis of these samples showed the presence of ammonia in 23 samples. The parameters, like total dissolved solids, alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, fluoride and sulphate are within the desirable limit in these 23 samples. Ammonia contaminated samples also show an excess of iron and nitrate which causes an unpalatable taste. Ammonia can be effectively removed by the adsorption method employing charcoals from various sources. Charcoal obtained from rice husk shows remarkable efficiency of 96.8% removal of ammonia. Coconut shell charcoal also gave a better result of 72% removal whereas activated charcoal and animal charcoal efficiencies are comparatively lesser with 25% and 21.8%, respectively.


Drinking water, Ammonia content, Adsorption, Malappuram district, Charcoal

IJEP 40 (8) : 836-840 (2020)

Assessing And Measuring Environmental Impact In Engineering Industry

Dheeraj Verma, Vartika Singh, Prodyut Bhattacharya and Jagdish Kishwan


Environment impact assessment (EIA) activity is mandatory to get prior environment clearance for some categories of developmental projects or activities as per environment impact assessment notification of September 2006 [1]. This is aimed to pre-identify the impact on the environment before such project or activity is begun and the proposed countermeasures for mitigating those environmental impacts. The impacts can be negative or positive to the environment. However, this is done on assumptions and past available knowledge and information and actual assessment at the site is out of the scope of this process after the project or activity has been established. Draft of EIA Notification 2020 is also issued by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change in March 2020 and is shared for public comments [2]. This paper focuses on identifying the impact on the environment during actual manufacturing processes or activities and also to quantify the impacts on the basis of its significance so that the mitigation measures can be prioritised.


Environmental impact assessment, Environment aspect, Sustainable manufacturing, Sustainability

IJEP 40 (8) : 841-846 (2020)

Decolourization Of Disperse Red 17 Dye From Wastewater By Using Coagulation / Flocculation Process

Hussein H. Hamed, Mariwan R. Faris, Awad E. Mohammed and Waleed M. Sh. Alabdraba


Coagulation/flocculation is an environment-friendly technique that can be used in decolourization of industrial wastewaters and make it reusable. In this study, the decolourization of disperse red 17 dye (DR 17) at constant initial dye concentration (60 mg/L) in wastewater were studied. Various operating parameters, such as type and dosage of oxidant (hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ferric chloride (FeCl3), alum (AL2SO4) and Corchorus olitorus (CR)) and its influence on the removal of colour efficiency were investigated in coagulation/flocculation process. The obtained results revealed that the best colour removal efficiency (85.24%) was achieved at optimum operating parameters as 40 mg/L of alum, 35.77 mole ratio of H2O2/ FeCl3 and 0 mg/L of Corchorus olitorus (CR). All experiments were carried out using a jar test apparatus at constant temperature (room temperature).


Coagulation, Disperse red 17, Flocculation, Colour removal, Wastewater

IJEP 40 (8) : 847-850 (2020)

Impact Of Butanol And Pentanol On Combustion And Emission Characteristic Of Microgas Turbine

P. Booma Devi, V. Paulson, Jensin Joshua, S. Manigandan and P. Gunasekar


Butanol is an effective alternative source of energy to fossil fuels. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of butanol blends on the microgas turbine engine. The series of experiments conducted to measure the performance and emission characteristics of the engine running at different rpm. The butanol is added to the Jet A fuel at different concentrations ranging from 5-20% alongwith 1% of pentanol. The blends are mixed with the Jet A fuel by ultrasonication process. The parameters, such as thrust, thrust specific fuel consumption, CO, HC and NOx are measured for different throttle settings. From the results it is evident the addition of butanol increases the thrust about 17.6% and the emissions, such as CO, HC and NOx are reduced profound levels compared with Jet A fuel.


Gas turbine, Biofuel, Emission, Jet fuel

IJEP 40 (8) : 851-857 (2020)

How Urbanization Affects Environment At Different Levels Of Development? Evidence From South Asian Countries

Ramanpreet Kaur and Tushinder Preet Kaur


Rapidly growing urban population in the Asian region has also created challenges for the environment. Thus the study focuses on investigating the effect of urbanization on the environment for the different levels of development of the South Asian countries by using the panel data from 1991 to 2018. The study has used the STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) model and OLS (ordinary least squares) technique to measure the parameters. This research study offers an unbiased measurement of the association between urbanization and the environment. Low income countries directly present the negative relationship between urbanization and consumption of energy but urbanization shows a positive relationship with carbon emission. In the case of an upper-middle income group, the level of energy consumption is high as compared to low income and lower income countries. The findings of the study are helpful for policymakers in the context of increasing urbanization and industrialization. There is an inevitable requirement of urban infrastructure to support this increased level of urbanization and industrialization.  


Urbanization, Environment degradation, South Asian countries, STIRPAT model, OLS method

IJEP 40 (8) : 858-863 (2020) 

Removal Of Copper Ion From Aqueous Solution By Chemically Modified Bioadsorbents Of Citrus reticulata 

Sonam Kumari, Manjinder Kaur, Mudit Gupta, Narendra Pal Lamba and Manmohan Singh Chauhan


Bioadsorbents was developed by the chemical modification of Citrus reticulate, which is used for removal of copper ion from aqueous solution by batch adsorption technique. Various type of salts has been used for chemical modification of Citrus reticulate. The equilibrium adsorption level was determined to be a function of pH, particle size, contact time, agitation speed and adsorbent dosage.


Citrus retriculata, Copper ion, Bioadsorbents, Chemical modification

IJEP 40 (8) : 864-868 (2020)

Spatial Mapping Of Traffic Noise Level Using GIS Software – A Case Study 

Praba M. and N. K. Rajan


Traffic noise from roads creates problems for surrounding areas, especially when there are high traffic volumes and high speeds. In India, the transportation segment is growing promptly at over 7.50% per annum and the number of vehicles on Indian roads is growing at a very fast rate. This has led to overcrowded roads resulting in increased noise level. The objective of this study is to build a GIS model for the selected study areas to predict noise levels due to road traffic. The methodology adopted for achieving the objective is to conduct a volume count survey, spot speed survey and noise level measurement for developing the GIS model. The road noise generated is normally in the linear form along the roads. Hence roads were taken for the study purpose. Three study locations selected in this study. GIS model is developed for three road sections at different locations for this study purpose. It is found that road noise is about 60-85 dB and level of sound in that particular area has good relation with the public until the continuous noise level above 80 dB is heard.


Noise level prediction, Geographical information system, Traffic noise map, ArcGIS

IJEP 40 (8) : 869-873 (2020)

Influence Of Piggery Wastewater Concentrations In Chlorella vulgaris Cultivation For Oil Production

Jenjira Saekoo and Thanawan Panich-pat


Influence of piggery wastewater concentrations on Chlorella vulgaris cultivation for oil production was to determine an optimal concentration of piggery wastewater for algal cultivation, reveal water quality before and after algal cultivation and quantify the biomass and oil production. The studies showed that the highest growth of microalgae cultivated when cultivating Chlorella vulgaris in the 20% concentration culture. The pH during the cultivation period was 7.99-8.98, while electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal were ranging from 31.08-32.56%, 28.98-34.43%, 35.16-67.25% and 15.00-72.14%, respectively after 15 days of treatment. The highest biomass productivity was 3.382 g and the highest oil productivity was 0.0114 mL when cultivating Chlorella vulgaris in the 80% concentration culture. Nutrient in piggery wastewater was efficiently removed among all the treatments. The specific growth rate and oil productivity were different among all the cultures. This study showed that simultaneous production of biofuel, bioelectricity and wastewater treatment were possible by Chlorella vulgaris.


Microalgae, Piggery wastewater, Algae oil, Chlorella vulgaris, Cultivation

IJEP 40 (8) : 874-877 (2020)

Technical Modifications In Gasoline Engine For Blending Methanol In Automobile Fuels

A. G. Matani


Methanol is a clean burning drop-in fuel which can replace both petrol and diesel in transportation and LPG, wood, kerosene in cooking fuel. It can also replace diesel in railways, marine sector, generator sets, power generation and methanol based reformers could be the ideal complement to hybrid and electric mobility. Methanol has a higher octane rating than petrol. Hence compression ratio to be achieved while using methanol is more than that while using petrol. Also, the calorific value of methanol is less than petrol; hence more fuel is needed to be burnt to obtain a certain amount of energy, as compared to petrol. Methanol is a cleansing agent. When used in an engine, it cleans the dirt and filth is formed in the engine. This may damage some parts of the engine and make them useless. Taking into account these properties of methanol, certain modifications are required in the engine. The modifications vary depending on the maker of an engine; technologies used, percentage of fuel to be used, etc.


Fuel for spark ignition engine operation, Greenhouse effect, Methanol economy, Renewable methanol by capturing CO2, Air/alcohol mixture

IJEP 40 (8) : 878-881 (2020)

Degradation Of Methylene Blue Dye Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation And Adsorption

A. R. Warade and R. W. Gaikwad


An amalgamation of hydrodynamic cavitation and adsorption with the use of hydrogen peroxide as a catalyst has been explored in support of the treatment of dye industrial wastewater. The effects of various operating parameters, such as the effect of concentration, pH and contact time have been considered with the aim of amplifying the degree of removal. It was observed in the present investigation by means of raising the pH of the solution, the extent of methylene blue (MB) removal increased. The impact of original methylene blue concentration on the dye removal efficiency of the zeolite was thoroughly examined by varying the original dye concentration. It was monitored that due to an increase in the original concentration of the methylene blue in the inlet flow, the breakthrough time reduces so as to zeolite bed reached the saturation earlier. This may take place because the concentration increases and the rate of the mass transfer enhances due to enlarged concentration, hence the ability of zeolite to take up the methylene blue dye diminishes with increase in original concentrations in inlet flow, therefore such occurrence took place. Effects of different process variables, such as original concentration, solution pH, time and addition of H2O2 on the removal kinetics were studied. The degradation of methylene blue was established to be pH dependent and the basic medium was found to be favourable for elevated degradation. It was found that operating pH, state of the molecule (molecular or ionic) and nature (hydrophobic and hydrophilic) are the vital factors which finally determine the effective degradation of pollutants.


Methylene blue, Hydrodynamic cavitation, Adsorption, Industrial wastewater

IJEP 40 (8) : 882-886 (2020)

Correlation Between Distance Of Cipayung Landfill And Chromium (VI) Concentration In Ground water Bulak Barat Village, Depok, Indonesia

R. Siti Mardiyanti Pratiwi and Budi Hartono


Cipayung landfill is the only landfill in Depok; the processing method still is open dumping. Open dumping can cause environmental degradation, pollution of groundwater due to leaching. Leachate water generally contains organic and inorganic compounds (heavy metals), one of the heavy metals contained in leachate is chromium (VI). This study aims to determine the correlation between the distance of the landfill with chromium (VI) concentration in the community groundwater. This research is an observational analytic study with cross-sectional design and uses purposive sampling technique. The chromium (VI) concentration in groundwater around Cipayung landfill was taken from 45 groundwater samples belonging to the community neighbourhood and Hamlet, Bulak Barat village, Cipayung urban village, Depok, were analyzed in a laboratory by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method (AAS). The correlation between the landfill distance with the chromium (VI) concentration in groundwater was tested using a non-parametric Spearman correlation test and simple linear regression analysis because the concentration of chromium (VI) data in groundwater is abnormal. The results of the analysis revealed that the distance of the landfill does not correlate with the chromium (VI) concentration in 45 groundwater samples.


Chromium (VI), Concentration, Distance, Landfill, Groundwater

IJEP 40 (8) : 887-891 (2020)

Geochemical Studies On The Groundwater Of Kistapur Village, Medchal District, Telangana

M. Venkateshwarlu, K. Rajagopal and Y.S. Reddy


Groundwater is one of the sources of drinking water and various other usages. With an increase in urbanization and industrialization, health conditions are influenced by the chemical aspects of groundwater and geology of the region. Access to safe drinking water remains an urgent necessity in the world as it is directly related to health. Groundwater accounts for more than 80% of the rural domestic water supply in India. The integrated groundwater prospects maps are preferred by using different thematic layers, like geology, geomorphology, structures, hydrology, etc. Drinking water quality data of rural water supply sources situated in Medchal district of Telangana state is studied for the parameters, like total dissolved solids, total hardness, alkalinity, pH and chlorides to assess the spatial distribution of ground quality in terms of portability or non-portability. The results were compared with the standard values given by the World Health Organization and the Bureau of Indian Standards.


Groundwater, Potability, pH, Alkalinity, Dissolved solids, Dissolved oxygen, Hardness

IJEP 40 (8) : 892-896 (2020)

Experimental Investigation On Municipal Wastewater Treatment By Using Murraya koenigii Leaves As A Coagulant

K. Shunmuga Priya and P. Balamurugan


A physico-chemical parameter imparts a great impact on wastewater treatment. In this present study, an attempt has been captious to appraise the potency of locally available Murraya koenigii (curry leaves) leaf powder as natural coagulation for reduction of physical parameters to enhance the peculiarity of municipal water. The tests were consummate using municipal wastewater with the conventional jar test apparatus. The dosing of water soluble extract of Murraya koenigii leaf powder ash showed a reduction in the concentration of physico-chemical parameters in municipal wastewater. The various ages of Murraya koenigii leave carried out during the wastewater treatment are 5 days, 10 days, 20 days and 30 days dried under sunlight. It brought to notice that natural coagulant worked finer with turbid water. The physico-chemical parameters reduction efficiency of about 76.13% was observed from the analysis. Influence of the pH also plays an important part in the efficient removal of parameters. Use of locally available Murraya koenigii leaf powder ash as natural coagulant was found to be suitable, easier, cost effective and eco-friendly for municipal wastewater treatment process. Optimal mixing ardour and duration were determined.


Wastewater, Physico-chemical, Murraya koenigii, Natural coagulant